Manahoac through Tutelo
Siouan tribes in red
Meaning “They are very merry,” according to Tooker (1895), but this seems improbable. Also called: Mahocks, apparently a shortened form.
Connections ~ The Manahoac belonged to the Siouan linguistic family; their nearest connections were probably the Monacan, Moneton, and Tutelo.
Location ~ In northern Virginia between the falls of the rivers and the mountains east and west and the Potomac and North Anna Rivers north and south.
Subdivisions ~ Subtribes or tribes of the confederacy as far as known were the following:
Hassinunga, on the headwaters of the Rappahannock River.
Manahoac proper, according to Jefferson (1801), in Stafford and Spottsylvania Counties.
Ontponea, in Orange County.
Shackaconia, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Spottsylvania County.
Stegaraki, on the Rapidan River in Orange County.
Tanxnitania, on the north side of the upper Rappahannock River in Fauquier County.
Tegninateo, in Culpeper County, at the head of the Rappahannock River.
Whonkentia, in Fauquier County, near the head of the Rappahannock.
Villages ~ Mahaskahod, on the Rappahannock River, probably near Fredericksburg, is the only town known by name.
History ~ Traditional evidence points to an early home of the Manahoac people in the Ohio Valley. In 1608 John Smith discovered them in the location above given and learned that they were allied with the Monacan but at war with the Powhatan Indians and the Iroquois (or perhaps rather the Susquehanna). After this they suddenly vanish from history under a certainly recognizable name, but there is good reason to believe that they were one of those tribes which settled near the falls of the James River in 1654 or 1656 and defeated a combined force of Whites and coast Indians who had been sent against them. They seem to have been forced out of their old country by the Susquehanna. Probably they remained for a time in the neighborhood of the Monacan proper and were in fact the Mahock encountered by Lederer (1912) in 1670 at a point on James River which Bushnell seems to have identified with the site of the old Massinacack town, the fact that a stream entering the James at this point is called the Mohawk rendering his case rather strong. Perhaps the old inhabitants had withdrawn to the lower Monacan town, Mowhemencho. In 1700 the Stegaraki were located by Governor Spotswood of Virginia at Fort Christanna, and the Mepontsky, also placed there, may have been the Ontponea. We hear of the former as late as 1723, and there is good reason to believe that they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, and that under these two names were included all remnants of the Manahoac.
Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,500 Manahoac in 1600 but this is probably rather too high, since their numbers and those of the Tutelo together seem to have been 600-700 in 1654. However, it is possible that these figures cover only the Manahoac, while Mooney’s include part of the Saponi and Tutelo.
Meherrin. Meaning unknown.
Connections ~ The Meherrin belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the Nottaway.
Location ~ Along the river of the same name on the Virginia-North Carolina border.
History ~ The tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form “Maharineck” in the account of an expedition by Edward Blande and others to North Carolina in 1650, and next in an Indian census taken in 1669. Later they seem to have adopted a body of Conestoga or Susquehanna fleeing from Pennsylvania after their dispersal by the Iroquois about 1675. This is the only way to account for the fact that they are all said to have been refugee Conestoga. They were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the southern bands of Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga, and probably went north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For information regarding another possible band of Meherrin see “Nottaway”)
Population ~ Mooney (1928) estimates the Meherrin population at 700 in 1600. In 1669 they are said to have had 50 bowmen, or approximately 180 souls. In 1755 they were said to be reduced to 7 or 8 fighting men, but in 1761 they are reported to have had 20.
Connection in which they have become noted.~ Meherrin River, an affluent of the Chowan, running through southern Virginia and north-eastern North Carolina, and a Virginia town perpetuate the name of the Meherrin.
Possibly from an Algonquian word signifying “digging stick,” or “spade,” but more likely from their own language. Also called:
Rahowacah, by Archer, 1607, in Smith (1884).
Connections~ The Monacan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. Their nearest connections were the Manahoac, Tutelo, and Saponi.
Location~ On the upper waters of James River above the falls at Richmond.
Villages ~ (Locations as determined by D. I. Bushnell, Jr.) Massinacack, on the right bank of James River about the mouth of Mohawk Creek, and a mile or more south of Goochland.
Mohemencho, later called Monacan Town, on the south bank of James River and probably covering some of “the level area bordering the stream in the extreme eastern part of the present Powhatan County, between Bernards Creek on the east and Jones Creek on the west.”
Rassawek, at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers and probably “on the right bank of the Rivanna, within the angle formed by the two streams.”
Two other towns are sometimes added but and they afterward appeared as wholly independent tribes, the Saponi and the Tutelo, it is probable that their connection with the Monacan was never very intimate. They seem to have been classed as Monacan largely on the evidence furnished by Smith’s map, in which they appear in the country of the “Monacans” but Smith’s topography, as Bushnell has shown, was very much foreshortened toward the mountains and the Saponi and Tutelo towns were farther away than he supposed. Again, while Massinacack and Mohemencho are specifically referred to as Monacan towns and Smith calls Rassawek “the chief habitation” of the Monacan, there is no such characterization of either of the others.
History ~ Capt. John Smith learned of the Monacan in the course of an exploratory trip which he made up James River in May 1607. The people themselves were visited by Captain Newport the year following, who discovered the two lower towns. The population gradually declined and in 1699 some Huguenots took possession of the land of Mowhemencho. The greater part of the Monacan had been driven away some years before this by Colonel Bornn (Byrd?). Those who escaped continued to camp in the region until after 1702, as we learn from a Swiss traveler named F. L. Michel (1916). It is probable that the remnant finally united with their relatives the Saponi and Tutelo when they were at Fort Christanna and followed their fortunes, but we have no further information as to their fate.
Population ~ The number of the Monacan was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,200 in 1600 including part of the Saponi and Tutelo, but they can hardly have comprised over half as many. In 1669 there were still about 100 true Monacan as they were credited with 30 bowmen.
Connection in which they have become noted~ The name Monacan is perpetuated by a small place called Manakin on the north bank of James River, in Goochland County, Va.
A contraction of Monahassano or Monahassanugh, remembered in later times as Yesan.
Connections ~ The Nahyssan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Tutelo, Saponi, and probably the Monacan and Manahoac.
Location ~ The oldest known location of the Nahyssan has been identified by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. (1930), within very narrow limits as “probably on the left bank of the James, about 1 1\2 miles up the stream from Wingina, in Nelson County.”
History ~ In 1650 Blande and his companions noted a site, 12 miles south-south vest of the present Petersburg, called “Manks Nessoneicks” which was presumably occupied for a time by the Nahyssan or a part of them, since “Manks” may be intended for “Tanks,” the Powhatan adjective signifying “little.” In 1654 or 1666 this tribe and the Manahoac appeared at the falls of James River having perhaps been driven from their former homes by the Susquehanna. They defeated a force of colonials and Powhatan Indians sent against them but did not advance further into the settlements. In 1670 Lederer (1912) found two Indian towns on Staunton River, one of which he calls Sapon and the other Pintahae. Sapon was, of course, the town of the Saponi but it is believed that Pintahae was the town of the Nahyssnn Indians, though Lederer gives this name to both towns. Pintahae was probably the Hanathaskie or Hanahaskie town of which Batts and Fallam (1912) speak a year later. About 1675 the Nahyssan settled on an island below the Occaneechi at the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers. Before 1701 all of the Sionan tribes who had settled in this neighborhood moved into North Carolina, and it is thought that the Nahyssan followed the Saponi and Tutelo to the headwaters of the Yadkin and that their subsequent fortunes were identical with those of these two. (See Saponi and Tutelo.)
Population ~ (See Saponi and Tutelo.)
Meaning “adders,” in the language of their Algonquian neighbors, a common designation for alien tribes by peoples of that linguistic stock. Also called:
Cheroenhaka, their own name, probably signifying “fork of a stream.”
Mangoak, Mengwe, another Algonquian term, signifying “stealthy,” “treacherous.”
Connections ~ The Nottaway belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the Meherrin, Tuscarora, and Susquchanna.
Location ~ On the river of the same name in southeastern Virginia.
History ~ The Nottaway were found by the Virginia colonists in the location given above. Though they were never prominent in colonial history, they kept up their organization long after the other tribes of the region were practically extinct. In 1825 they are mentioned as living on a reservation in Southampton County and ruled over by a “queen.” The name of this tribe was also applied to a band of Indians which appeared on the northern frontiers of South Carolina between 1748 and 1754. They may have included those Susquehanna who are sometimes confounded with the Meherrin, and are more likely to have included Meherrin than true Nottaway although they retained the name of the latter (see Swanton, 1946).
Population ~ The number of Nottaway, exclusive of those last mentioned, was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,500 in the year 1600. In 1709 Lawson reported one town with 30 fighting men, but in 1827 Byrd estimated that there were 300 Nottaway in Virginia. In 1825, 47 were reported. The band that made its appearance on the frontiers of South Carolina was said to number about 300.
Connetion in which they have become noted ~ The name of the Nottaway is preserved by Nottoway River, Nottoway County, and two towns, one the county seat of the above, the other in Sussex county. There is a Nottawa in St. Joseph County, Mich.
Meaning unknown. The Botshcnins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi and Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe.
Connections ~ The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and Saponi.
Location ~ On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River, just below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also North Carolina.) History~ Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 1650. When first met by Lederer in 1670 at the spot above mentioned, the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as traders, and their language is said to have been the common speech both of trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912). Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the Tutelo and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In the latter year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were hospitably received, but, attempting to dispossess their benefactors, they were driven away. Later, harassed by the Iroquois and English, the Occaneechi fled south and in 1701 Lawson (1860) found them on the Eno River, about the present Hillsboro, Orange County, N. C. Later still they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, having, according to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi.
Population ~ Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200 Occaneechi in the year 1600. There is no later estimate, but in 1709 this tribe along with the Shakori, Saponi, Tutelo, and Keyauwee were about 750.
Connection in which they have become noted ~ The name Occaneechi is associated particularly with the Occaneechi Trail or Trading Path, which extended southwest through North and South Carolina from the neighborhood of Petersburg, Va.
Said by Gerard to signify “falls in a current of water,” and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the English to its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body of tribes which came under his sway. Also called:
Sachdagugh-roonnw, Iroquois name.
Connections ~ The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian tribes of Carolina and the Conoy.
Location ~ In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia. (See also Maryland and District of Columbia.)
Subtribes constituting this group are as follows:
- Accohanoc, in Accomao and part of Northampton Counties, Va., and probably extending slightly into Maryland.
- Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va.
- Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County.
- Arrohattoc, in Henrico County. Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County.
- Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River.
- Chiskiac, in York County.
- Cuttatawomen, in King George County.
- Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County.
- Mattapony on Mattapony River.
- Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties.
- Mummapacune, on York River.
- Nansemond, in Nansemond County.
- Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties.
- Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County.
- Pamunkey, in King William County.
- Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties.
- Pataunck, on Pamunkey River.
- Piankatank, on Piankatank River.
- Pissasee, in King George and Westmoreland Counties.
- Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties.
- Powhatan, in Henrico County.
- Rappahannock, in Richmond County.
- Secacawoni, in Northumberland County.
- Tauxenent, in Fairfax County.
- Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County.
- Weanoe, in Charles City County.
- Werowcomoco, in Gloucester County.
- Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County.
- Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River.
- Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or Northampton Counties.
- Accomac, according to Jefferson (1801), about Cheriton, on Cherrystone Inlet, Northampton County.
- Acconoe, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent County.
- Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline County.
- Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County.
- Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline County.
- Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George County.
- Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent County.
- Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below the falls at Richmond.
- Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County.
- Assaomeck, near Alexandria.
- Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.
- Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New Kent County.
- Aubomesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.
- Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County.
- Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County.
- Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County.
- Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County.
- Cawwontoil, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Chawopo, at the mouth of
- Chipoak Creek, Surry County.
- Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Greek, in Caroline County.
- Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster County.
- Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess Anne County a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay.
- Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County.
- Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County.
- Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below the junction of the Mattapony and Pamunkey.
- Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland County.
- Cinquoteek, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King William County.
- Cuttatawomen, (1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in Lancaster County; (2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in King George County.
- Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County.
- Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman River in Lancaster County.
- Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King George County.
- Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of Metomkin.
- Kupkipcock, on Parnunkey River in King William County.
- Machapunga, (l) in Northampton County; (2) on Potomac River.
- Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County.
- Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in King and Queen County.
- Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.
- Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County.
- Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County.
- Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
- Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County.
- Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight County.
- Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County.
- Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
- Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George County.
- Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth, in Nansemond County.
- Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent County.
- Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County.
- Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City County.
- Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County.
- Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County.
- Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond County.
- Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George County.
- Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and Queen County.
- Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.
- Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony River in King William County.
- Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax County.
- Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in Alexandria County, opposite Washington, D. C.
- Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County.
- Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County.
- Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in either Essex County or Caroline County.
- Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower part of Henrico County.
- Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster County. Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County.
- Onawrnanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County.
- Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Middlesex County.
- Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers.
- Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County.
- Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George County.
- Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
- Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey.
- Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent County. P
- amunkey, probably near West Point in King William County. Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.
- Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen County.
- Paspahegh, (1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles City County; (2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City County.
- Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the northwestern part of King William County.
- Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in Stafford County.
- Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth of the Corotoman in Lancaster County.
- Pecearecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern Virginia border, perhaps mythical. Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William County about 30 miles below Alexandria.
- Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County.
- Pissacoac, On the north bank of Rappahannock River above Leedstown in Westmoreland County.
- Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
- Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers. Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay, on a peninsula in what is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac River and Potomac Creek.
- Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground now forming an eastern suburb of Richmond.
- Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet. Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William County.
- Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff just east of Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County.
- Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in Stafford County. Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County. Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
- Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina. Roscows, in Elizabeth City County.
- Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the Potomac in Northumberland County.
- Secobeck, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.
- Shamnpa, on Pamunkey or York River.
- Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
- Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.
- Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond County.
- Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline County.
- Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King William County.
- Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in Westmoreland County. Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
- Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of Warrasqueoc Creek in Isle of Wight County.
- Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present Weyanoke in Prince George County.
- Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
- Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
- Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County about opposite the mouth of Queen Creek.
- Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland County.
- Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Powhatan History ~ The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers, including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century and a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570 though soon extinguished by the Indians. In 1607 the Virginia colony was planted on James River and from that time on relations between the Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate character, friendly at first, but later disturbed by the exactions of the newcomers. Peace was restored for a lime by the marriage of Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe, and lasted until Powhatan’s death in 1618. In 1622 Powhatan’s second successor, Opechancanough, led an uprising against the colonists, as a result of which all of the White settlements except those immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. War continued until 1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, but in 1644 Opechnncanough led another uprising as destructive as the first. He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes made peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, where they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland people, but the allied army was severely defeated (see Manahoac). In 1675 these Indians were accused of having committed certain depredations, really caused by the Conestoga, and several unauthorized expeditions were led against them by Nathaniel Bacon. In August 1676 a great body of them gathered in a fort nenr Richmond which was carried by storm, and men, women, and children indiscriminately massacred. Peace was made with the survivors on condition that an annual tribute be paid by each village. In 1722 in a treaty made at Albany between the English nnd Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease their attacks upon the Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already had been greatly reduced and they continued to decline. Those on the eastern shore of Virginia, who had become very much mixed with Negroes, were driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by the slave rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the Powhatan Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pnmunkey and Mattapony, embracing only about 15 men, but he must have overlooked great numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are several bands, including the Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Potomac, Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925).
Population ~ The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney (1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors; in 1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the Wicocomoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in 1785 represented the two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney, however, believed that there must have been a population of something like 1,000 because of the number of mixed-bloods still surviving. The census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85 Pamunkey. The United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for 1923 includes still other bands, giving in all a population of 822, and Speck (1925) gives the names of 10 bands aggregating 2,118 in 1923. The census of 1930 returned only 203 Indians from Virginia but evidently missed nearly all except the Pamunkey.
Connection in which they have become noted ~ The Powhatan Confederacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the first permanent English settlement in North America was made; for the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had conquered about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under him at his accession, before the appearance of the Europeans; on account of the dealings of the Whites with both Powhatan and his brother Opechancanough, as well as the massacre of the settlers by the latter in 1622 and again in 1644; and not least from the fame attached to Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas. There are post villages named Powhatan in Jefferson County, Ala.; Lawrence County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; McDowell County, W. Va.; a county and county seat of the name in Virginia; Powhatan Point in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhattan in Brown County, Kans.
Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term “moni-seep” signifying “shallow water.” Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word “Pawnee.”
Connections ~ The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo.
Location ~ The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with “an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway.” This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New York.) Villages The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town. History~ As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith’s map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they moved to the southwest and probably settled on Otter Creek, as above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long afterward they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke River in Mecklenburg County. This movement was to enable them to escape the attacks of the Iroquois, and for the same reason they again moved south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on Yadkin River near the present site of Salisbury, N. C. Soon afterward they left this place and gravitated toward the White settlements in Virginia. They evidently crossed Roanoke River before the Tuscarora War of 1711, establishing themselves a short distance east of it and 15 miles west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. A little later they, along with the Tutelo and some other tribes, were placed by Governor Spotswood near Fort Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River about the present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name of Sappony Creek in Dinwiddie County, dating back to 1733 at least, indicates that they sometimes extended their excursions north of Nottoway River. By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois agreed to stop incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 1740, the greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north stopping for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. One band, however, remained in the south, in Granville County, N. C., until at least 1756, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753 the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo. Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section had their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south of Ithaca, N. Y. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga on Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in North Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora, Meherrin, and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.
Population ~ The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney (1928) as remnants of the Mannhoac and Monacan with an estimated population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found 200 Saponi, Manaboac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765, when they were living on the upper Susquehanna, the Saponi are said to have had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band counted 20 warriors in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men and 14 women in 1755.
Connection in which they have become noted ~ A small place called Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C., east of the Yadkin River, preserves the name of the Saponi.
They seem to have lived in the State at one time. (See North Carolina.)
Indians of this tribe were settled for a time in the Shenandoah Valley. (See Tennessee.)
Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called: Kattera, another form of Tutelo. Shateras, a third form of the name.
Connections ~ The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest connections being thc Saponi and probably the Monacan.
Location ~ The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.)
History ~ In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time forward they accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own language until 1898, when the last individual who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of some of the Iroquois. (For further information, see Swanton (1937).)
Population ~ (See Saponi.) In 1701-9, according to Lawson (1860), the Tutelo, Saponi, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, and Shakori numbered together about 750. In 1715 Governor Spotswood reported that the Indians at Fort Christanna, including the Tutelo, Saponi, Occancechi, and Manahoac, numbered 300. In 1763 the Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, and Conoy had 200 men, probably less than 1,000 souls.
Connection in which they have become noted ~ The Tutelo are note- worthy chiefly as the principal body of Siouan Indians from Virginia to retain their integrity and preserve a knowledge of their language.