Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #108-111: Ininaginee/to live, Ts’eere/to die, Ktseexee/to kill, Kimakitsa/to fight

Searching for Saponitown Forums Tutelo Language Revival Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #108-111: Ininaginee/to live, Ts’eere/to die, Ktseexee/to kill, Kimakitsa/to fight

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #108
    *Ininaginee, to live.

    In this case I have assumed that the Yesan verb for ‘to live’, /Iiniinagiine/ is most conservative and little changed from the original, for a couple of reasons.

    This Yesan verb was transcribed by Hale as “Ininagi nvsei” which we now know represents the progressive tense form with the suffix -se, Ininaginese.

    Furthermore, this Yesan form semantically represents the noun, “life” = /Iiniina/ plus /Agiine/ “to be in”, thus the literal meaning is “to be in life”.

    Most of the other languages in the family have terms that look like they could easily be corruptions of an ancient original much like the Yesan verb. This is evidence that the Yesan verb was similar to the original not only in form but in semantic meaning, even though the clear semantic formation of adding the verb “Agine” “to be in”, was lost in the other languages.

    Rankin has his reconstruction *Irin, “alive”, identified as a verb, so the meaning must be “_to be_ alive” corresponding with my reconstruction.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /We’munrire/
    3 YESAN /Iiniinagiine/
    4 OFO /Nankii/
    5 BILOXI ?
    6 QUAPA /Akniin/
    7 OMAHA ?
    8 KAW /Nii/
    9 OSAGE /Nii/
    10 HOCHAK /Niinha/
    11 CHIWERE /Miina/
    12 MANDAN /Iiniihush/
    13 DAKOTA /Nii/
    14 NAKODA /Nii/
    15 HIDATSA /Mahkuwa/, /Iire/
    16 CROW /Biilaxpake/, /Dahku/

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #109
    *Ts’eere, to die.

    Most forms seem to come from *Ts’eere, with the glottal stop usually present from Quapaw to Nakoda. Languages #1-3 share a rounded sound, w or o, before the r / l, so if this corresponded to the glottal stop in PMV, it may have originally stood for *Tsweere (words for “die” often have some degree of taboo about them resulting in a reluctance to pronounce them fully)

    Rankin’s reconstruction is again quite similar to mine: he has *T’eere, *T’ee for “to die”.

    1 WOCCON /Kawree/
    2 CATAWBA /Werii/
    3 YESAN /Teyolaha/ <*Teela <*Ts’eere
    4 OFO /The/ <*Thee <*Ts’ee
    5 BILOXI /Teedii/ <*Teeri <*Ts’eere
    6 QUAPAW /T’ee/ <*Ts’ee ^
    7 OMAHA /T’ee/ ^
    8 KAW /Ts’ee/ ^
    9 OSAGE /Ts’ee/ ^
    10 HOCHAK /Thee/ <*Ts’ee ^
    11 CHIWERE /Ch’ee/ <*Ts’ee ^
    12 MANDAN /Teero’sh/ <*Teere <*Ts’eere
    13 DAKOTA /T’a/ <*T’ee ^
    14 NAKODA /T’a/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Tee/ <*Tsee <*Ts’ee ^
    16 CROW /Shee/ <*Tsee ^

    *Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #110
    *Ktseexee, to kill.

    This verb seems connected with the previous one, *Ts’eere “to die”, and also seems to show the causative -xee “to cause, to make”

    Rankin reconstructs two verbs for “to kill”, *Kte from #3, 4, 12A, 13,14; as well as *T’ehie from #5, 6-11, and 15, but does not assume a common ancestor.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Kowere/
    3 YESAN /Ktee/ <*Kteeye <*Kteexe <*Ktseexee
    4 OFO /Ktxe/<*Kteexe ^
    5 BILOXI /Teeye/ <*Kteeye ^
    6 QUAPAW /T’eedee/ <*Ts’eethee <*Ts’eexee <*Ktseexee
    7 OMAHA /Ch’eethee/ <*Ts’eethee ^
    8 KAW /Ts’eeyee/ <*Ts’eexee ^
    9 OSAGE /Ts’eethee/ ^
    10 HOCHAK /T’eehii/ <*Ts’eehii <*Ts’eexee ^
    11 CHIWERE /Ch’eehii/ <*Ts’eehii ^
    12 MANDAN /Ktee/, /Tee’hre’sh/ <*Kteexe ^
    13 DAKOTA /Ktee/ ^
    14 NAKODA /Ktee/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Tahe/ <*Taxee <*Teexee <*Ts’eexee ^
    16 CROW /Dapee/ <*Taxee ^

    William Meuse

    *Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #111
    *Kimakitsa, to fight.

    For this verb, I have traced Dhegigan and Hochak-CHiwere (#6-11) as far as *Akiitsa, Dakota-Nakoda to *Kiikiitsa, and Hidatsa-Crow to *Kiimakiiya (same as Hidatsa). The original ending was surely *-kiitsa, and the *Kiima- could account for both *Kii- and *A- variants. Note several have been influenced in development by the previous verb *Ktseexee “to kill”, indeed the Biloxi word for “fight” /Ktee/ is the same as “kill” in several of the others.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Wiitkrun/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Kiithe/
    5 BILOXI /Ktee/
    6 QUAPAW /Akiida/ <*Akiita <*Akiitsa
    7 OMAHA /Uqiithee/ <*Akiita ^
    8 KAW /Dagee/
    9 OSAGE /Akiitha/, /Dagee/ <*Akiita ^
    10 HOCHAK /Kze/ <*Kiitsa <*Akiitsa ^
    11 CHIWERE /Kiidha/ <*Kiitsa ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Kiichiiza/ <*Kiikiitsa
    14 NAKODA /Giichiiza/ <*Kiichiiza ^
    15 HIDATSA /Kiimakiiya/
    16 CROW /Bachiiya/ <*Makiiya <*Kiimakiiya ^

    Rankin’s reconstruction is somewhat baffling, he mentions #2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 16 above, and came up with Proto-Siouan *Hki “to fight”

    William Meuse

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