April 23, 2018 at 2:36 am #49358
*Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #112
*Nontsqree, to hunt.
Another difficult and tenuous reconstruction. Four languages are missing, and for three languages I found two terms for “to hunt”. There are probably differing verbs here, some meaning “to hunt, seek, find anything” and some meaning “to go out into the wilds and kill animals”.
Osage /Utsee/, Chiwere /Ujee/, Dakota /Odee/ and Crow /Ashii/ seem to form a set, despite not following subfamily lines. These indicate something like *Otsee.
Hochak /Nankikere/, Chiwere /Nangra/, and Dakota /Nasa/ suggest something like *Nanskree.
Although Chiwere and Dakota feature both of these, could both have a common ancestor? The Ofo form /Onsqa/ looks like it connect with both of these.
Thus *Nontsqree is suggested as the remote ancestor of *Otsee, *Nanskree, and /Onsqa/. This also fits somewhat remotely with Catawba /Depede’/ since the Catawba Ds could be from *N in the first instance and *R in the second, perhaps similarly to Kaw /Dablee/, but the lack of agreement in Dhegigan and overall makes this one more perplexing.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Depede’/
3 YESAN ?
4 OFO /Onsqa/
5 BILOXI /Iindahii/
6 QUAPAW /Diixee/
7 OMAHA /Aba’ee/
8 KAW /Dablee/
9 OSAGE /Utsee/
10 HOCHAK /Hinin/, /Nankikere/
11 CHIWERE /Ujee/, /Nangra/
12 MANDAN ?
13 DAKOTA /Odee/, /Nasa/
14 NAKODA ?
15 HIDATSA /Kiidii/
16 CROW /Ashii/
Rankin reconstructs his proto-Siouan verb *Re “to hunt, seek”, mentioning #9, 11a and 13a.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #113
*Taxpa, *Dochiin, to hit
I traced most of the verbs for ‘to hit’ from two verbs, *Taxpa and *Dochiin. Both are found in Crow, /Oxpii/ and /Dachii/, so these were probably slightly different verbs. The Biloxi /Ktee/ is the same as ‘fight’.
The Yesan verb Kohinank-he is probably a compound verb with -he ‘make, cause’, (Kohinank-wahe I hit, Kohinank-yahe, you hit, etc) meaning something like ‘to give a thump’.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Kesiire/
3 YESAN /Kohiinankhee/
4 OFO /Tpa/ <*Tapa <*Taxpa
5 BILOXI /Ktee/
6a QUAPAW /Kasta/.
6b /Ochiin/ <*Dochiin
7 OMAHA /Weethiin/ <*Ochiin
8 KAW /Iitchiin/ <*Ochiin ^
9 OSAGE /Aytsiin/ <*Ochiin ^
10 HOCHAK /Bote/ <*Doche <*Dochiin
11 CHIWERE /Ujiin/ <*Ojiin <*Dochiin
12 MANDAN /Rotkii’sh/ <*Dochii <*Dochiin
13 DAKOTA /Apha/ <*Apa <*Tapa ^
14 NAKODA /Apa/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Diikii/ <*Dochii ^
16 CROW /Dachii/ <*Dochii ^
16b /Oxpii/ <*Axpe <*Axpa ^
Rankin includes #13-14 under his *Apha, “to hit, pound”, and also identifies #6b-9 as from *Orhin, *Rhin, “to strike”, these are the 2 reconstructions corresponding to my *Taxpa and *Dochin, although he also has no fewer than five other proto-Siouan etymologies for “to strike”, cobbled together with other words in various languages for “to bite”, “to fall”, etc.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #114
*Datskusha, to cut.
I came up with *Datskusha for several of the cognates meaning “to cut”. This fits in with one of the Yesan forms, /Latkusha/, which can mean ‘cut’, or ‘bite’, or also ‘destroy’ or ‘break’, compare also /Lakasha/ ‘to chop’, etc.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Ken’/
3 YESAN /Olashpee/, /Latkusha/ <*Datskusha
4 OFO /Otkebeejii/ <*Otkeweja <*Otkuja <*Otkusha <*Datskusha
5 BILOXI /Akee/, /Daksadii/ <*Daksa <*Daksha <*Datskusha
6 QUAPAW /Aka/
7 OMAHA /Gasee/
8 KAW /Gasee/
9 OSAGE /Gadhee/
10 HOCHAK ?
11 CHIWERE /Riihtudh/
12 MANDAN ?
13 DAKOTA /Baksa/ <*Daksa ^
14 NAKODA /Ayuksa/ <*Daksa ^
15 HIDATSA /Daktsakii/ <*Datseku <*Datsku <*Datskusha
16 CROW /Dashku/ <*Datsku ^
Rankin mentions Quapaw /Aka/ as from PS *Ka; Catawba /Ken’/ as from the slightly distinct PS *Kan’, both meaning “to cut”; and Biloxi /Daksadii/ as from PS *Sa, *Sare “to cut strips; chop, tear”. He otherwise uses completely different words than I have used to support these reconstructions.
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