Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #116-119: Atsapee/to stab, Duqaxgee/to scratch, Qee/to dig, Ninwan/to swim

Searching for Saponitown Forums Tutelo Language Revival Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #116-119: Atsapee/to stab, Duqaxgee/to scratch, Qee/to dig, Ninwan/to swim

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #116
    *Atsapee, to stab

    In this case, the first four languages are missing, and the next two (Biloxi, Quapaw) don’t seem cognate with the others. After that, all the remaining languages show clear signs of having cognate verbs for “to stab” ultimately from *Atsapee as shown.

    The verbs also generally cover “to pierce” and similar actions to “to stab”

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO ?
    5 BILOXI /Pixwejii/ <*?
    6 QUAPAW /Baqdo/ <*?
    7 OMAHA /Zhahee/ <*Zhapee <*Chapee <*Tsapee <*Atsapee
    8 KAW /Zhaphee/ <*Zhapee ^
    9 OSAGE /Zhapshee/ <*Zhapee ^
    10 HOCHAK /Wepox/ <*Yapo <*Yapee <*Dapee <*Adapee <*Atsapee
    11 CHIWERE /Yawe/ <*Yapee ^
    12 MANDAN /Dape’sh/ <*Dapee ^
    13 DAKOTA /Tchapha/ <*Chapa <*Chapee ^
    14 NAKODA /Chapa/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Iirahpee/ <*Arahpee <*Adapee ^
    16 CROW /Alahpii/ <*Arahpee ^

    Rankin includes most of the cognates under his PS *Yaphe, ‘to stab’, except for Hochak /Wepox/, which he includes under PS *Poxe, also meaning ‘to stab’.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #117
    *Duqaxgee, to scratch.

    The ancestor of most of these verbs for ‘to scratch’ in my reconstruction was most likely *Duqaxqee as shown

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN /Iilachke/
    4 OFO /Duqafe/ <*Duqaxkee <*Duqaxgee
    5 BILOXI /Duqayee/ <*Duqaxkee ^
    6 QUAPAW /Diigo/
    7 OMAHA /Bagiixee/
    8 KAW /Ayuts’o/
    9 OSAGE /Gadsiidhee/
    10 HOCHAK /Ruqa/ <*Ruqax’ii <*Duqaxgii <*Duqaxgee
    11 CHIWERE /Rux’ii/ <*Ruqax’ii ^
    12 MANDAN /Keeq/
    13 DAKOTA /Yuqeega/ <*Duqagee <*Duqaxgee
    14 NAKODA /Yuqeega/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Kiikii/
    16 CROW /Dukaxii/, /Chkee/ <*Duqaxkee ^

    Rankin however includes “to scratch” in the following 8 reconstructions of his: 1) *K’e, *K’ere ‘to dig, scratch’ whence #16b; 2) *Kaxe, ‘to make marks, mark, scratch’ whence #16a; 3) *Xohe, ‘to mark, scratch, score’ whence #6; 4) *K’a, *K’are ‘to scrape, dig, scratch’ whence #10; 5) *K’exe, ‘to scrape, scratch, grate, rake’ whence #13; 6) *K’axe ‘scrape, scratching noise, scraping noise, sweep’ whence #4 and again #16a; 7) *Xrate ‘to scratch’ but supported by entirely different words, and 8) *Shke ‘to scratch, dig, dig out’ whence #3.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #118
    *Qee, to dig.

    The form /Qee/ and variants for “dig” is so widespread, that I feel it must have been very ancient.

    Rankin reconstructs it as *K’ere ‘to dig, scratch’ with the exception of 13-14, given as from *K’are ‘to scrape, dig, scratch’.
    Note, many of these languages use spellings with K’ but I use Q for this sound. So his reconstruction is essentially the same as mine plus -re which could well be correct i.e. (*Qeere) since this would account for the endings in Catawba, Biloxi and Mandan.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Ure/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Hupii/
    5 BILOXI /Kedii/
    6 QUAPAW /Qee/
    7 OMAHA /Ee/
    8 KAW /Qee/
    9 OSAGE /Qee/
    10 HOCHAK /Qee/
    11 CHIWERE /Qee/
    12 MANDAN /Kee’ro’sh/
    13 DAKOTA /Qa/
    14 NAKODA /Qa/
    15 HIDATSA /Opxeeshii/
    16 CROW /Paxchii/, /Dapaxii/

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #119
    *Ninwan, to swim.

    Several words for ‘to swim’ are cognate, and show the same general pattern – /Nunwan/, /Nyiinwan/, /Niiyuwawn/, /Niiman/, /Niimon/, /Niinp/ – from a presumed original *Niinwan. Some of the others eg Yesan /iina/ could also easily be from this.

    Rankin for his part reconstructed “to paddle, swim” as PS *Iwanhe and further still (through comparison to Catawban /Yimayii/ “boat”) to Proto-Siouan-Catawban *Wanhi, *Wanyi.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN /Iina/
    4 OFO ?
    5 BILOXI /Pxa/
    6 QUAPAW /Iida/, /Aniin/
    7 OMAHA /Niiyuwawn/
    8 KAW /Niiman/
    9 OSAGE /Niimon/
    10 HOCHAK /Niinp/, /Hiire/
    11 CHIWERE /Nyiinwan/, /Hiira/
    12 MANDAN /Pasu’n/
    13 DAKOTA /Nunwan/
    14 NAKODA /Nunwan/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Miidii/
    16 CROW /Biiwii/

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