Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #124-127: Mahananka/to sit, Onanshin/to stand, Duwexonexi/to turn, Oxempetsee/to fall

Searching for Saponitown Forums Tutelo Language Revival Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #124-127: Mahananka/to sit, Onanshin/to stand, Duwexonexi/to turn, Oxempetsee/to fall

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #124
    *Mahananka, to sit.

    Most of these words for “to sit, sit down” are interrelated, but the Yesan /Mahananka/ seems to me in this case to preserve the original Proto-Dakotan exactly, the others are more likely derived from it.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Wen/
    3 YESAN /Nancheka/, /Mahananka/
    4 OFO /Nonkii/
    5 BILOXI /Nankii/
    6 QUAPAW /Kniin/
    7 OMAHA /Agthiin/
    8 KAW /Gliin/
    9 OSAGE /Gthiin/
    10 HOCHAK /Miinenk/
    11 CHIWERE /Miinan/
    12 MANDAN /Nank/
    13 DAKOTA /Yanka/
    14 NAKODA /Yanga/
    15 HIDATSA /Amakii/
    16 CROW /Awachii/

    Rankin mentions most of these words as from Proto-Siouan *Ranke, earlier *Wunke (i.e. same as ‘to lie down’) and still earlier Proto-Siouan-Catawban *Wun, with these reconstructions assigned the meaning “to be sitting, sitting positional”.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #125
    *Onanshin, to stand.

    Several of the verbs for ‘stand’, ‘stand up’ seem related, and is the same, /Nazhiin/ in Omaha, Kaw, Dakota and Nakoda, and very similar (but with nasal) in Quapaw, Osage, Hochak, Chiwere.

    The Yesan (O)nenhee is a little more distant but probably also from the same origin, the O- in Yesan seems to be basically optional like with many verbs, also Biloxi /Siinhiin/ is probably more distantly related; on the basis of the scant evidence of these eastern forms I would propose *Onanshiin as the original verb meaning ‘to stand’.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Kusure/
    3 YESAN /Onenhee/
    4 OFO /Akeleewa/
    5 BILOXI /Siinhiin/
    6 QUAPAW /Nanzhiin/
    7 OMAHA /Nazhiin/
    8 KAW /Nazhiin/
    9 OSAGE /Nonzhiin/
    10 HOCHAK /Nanzhin/
    11 CHIWERE /Nanyiin/
    12 MANDAN /Tee/
    13 DAKOTA /Nazhiin/
    14 NAKODA /Nazhiin/
    15 HIDATSA /Nahare/
    16 CROW /Iilu/

    Rankin’s version of this from #6-11 and 13-14 is Proto-Miss Valley *Nanzhin ‘to stand’, though he also mentions Mandan /Tee/ and Ofo /Akaleewa/ with Hidatsa as from PS *Rahe “standing (inamimate classifier)”

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #126
    *Duwexonexi, to turn.

    I was able to take most of these verbs for “to turn” eventually as far as *Duwexonexii as follows:

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Wihiire/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Atunahii/ <*Dunahii <*Duwexonexii
    5 BILOXI /Dunahii/ ^
    6 QUAPAW ?
    7 OMAHA /Bawiinxee/ <*Ubaxowenxee <*Rubexowenxee <*Duwexowenxii <*Duwexonexii
    8 KAW /Bakomiighee/ <*Ubaxowenxee ^
    9 OSAGE /Ubashon/ <*Ubaxowenxee ^
    10 HOCHAK /Rugenk/ <* Rubgenka <*Rubexowenxee ^
    11 CHIWERE /Rubriina/ < *Rubgenka ^
    12 MANDAN /Kiiptanho’sh/
    13 DAKOTA /Yuhomnii/ <*Duhomenii <*Duwexowenxii ^
    14 NAKODA /Yuhomnii/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Dumiidii/ <*Dumiinii <*Duhomenii ^
    16 CROW /Dumiilii/ <*Dumiinii ^

    Rankin’s reconstructions are PS *Paran’ (from PS-C *Paran, *Paranhe) “To turn, roll”, which seems to include the Ofo and Chiwere words above, and PMV *Winghe “to turn” which includes the Kaw word.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #127
    *Oxempetsee, to fall.

    The various verbs for ‘to fall’ have diverged quite a bit, some are unrelated, but a recurring theme in Hii- can be seen right away in /Hiimpa/, /Hiide/, /Hiinxpaya/ (x2), /Xiiya/, /Xiiyatha/, and /Giiyatha/.

    The forms /Xwa/, /Oxwa/, /Xapii/ seem cognate with those, and share the aspirant x or h followed by labial w or p, as in /Hiimpa/ and /Hiinxpaya/.

    The forms /Oqpade/ and /Uqpathee/ also fit the same pattern of aspirant q followed by labial p. They also kept the original O- before the aspirant, as also in /Oxwa/. So I have reconstructed the beginning of the word as *Oxemp-

    /Hiinxpaya/ shows the -ya- next, after -pa-, and /Xiiyatha/, /Giiyatha/ shows the -ya- before -tha, so these forms likely passed together through *Xiimpayatha. This -tha corresponds with other endings in -the, -de (2x), -thee and possibly -shii in the east. I figure these are all from *-tsee, and the -ya- syllable in *Xiimpayatha doesn’t really fit with *Oxempetsee and is probably just a later elongation of *-pe- into *-paya-.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Kdu’/
    3 YESAN /Hiimpa/
    4 OFO /Unthe/, /Atonshii/
    5 BILOXI /Hiide/
    6 QUAPAW /Oqpade/
    7 OMAHA /Uqpathee/, /Giiyatha/
    8 KAW /Xiiya/, /Sanya/
    9 OSAGE /Xiiyatha/
    10 HOCHAK /Shiibre/
    11 CHIWERE /Oxwa/
    12 MANDAN /Wakiipke’sh//
    13 DAKOTA /Hiinxpaya/
    14 NAKODA /Hiinxpaya/
    15 HIDATSA /Xwa/
    16 CROW /Xapii/

    Rankin includes Tutelo /Hiimpa/ in his Proto-Siouan reconstruction *Hiphe, ‘to fall’. He also has #7a, 9, 12, and 16 included with *Xape, ‘to fall, lie down’

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