April 23, 2018 at 11:28 pm #49369
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #128
*Oqun, to give
This is an easy one, all the forms are similar and almost certainly come from *Oqun(re) – note the evidence for the -re is only in Catawban and Biloxi. The O- is still evident from Tutelo, Ofo, and Hochak-Chiwere.
The O- is optional in Yesan O-go, eg. with suffixes: /Mingohii/ “please give me” (Min- = me, -hii = please) or also /Omingohii/
Rankin’s version of “to give” is also similar, *K’u, *K’ure for Proto-Siouan and *K’u, *K’un for Proto-Siouan-Catawban (where K’ is the same as my Q)
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Kunhre/
3 YESAN /Ogo/
4 OFO /Iqu/
5 BILOXI /Kudii/
6 QUAPAW /Qii/
7 OMAHA /Ii/
8 KAW /Qu/
9 OSAGE /Qii/
10 HOCHAK /Hoqun/
11 CHIWERE /Uqun/
12 MANDAN /Ku’/
13 DAKOTA /Qu/
14 NAKODA /Qu/
15 HIDATSA /Ku/
16 CROW /Ku/
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #129
*Adunskosha, to hold.
In many languages, verbs for “to hold” often are the ones also serving for “have”, “seize”, “grab” etc.
In this case, I got most roads to lead to *Adunskosha as shown below.
The Crow /Dushkapii/ also means “to squeeze”, it seems to have coalesced with tomorrow’s word *Dutskingua “to squeeze”
I also obtained the form *Menin-skosha to mean “salt” (later on the list) where the first part is evidently *Meniin, water. So if my reconstructions are correct, the second part of *Menin-skosha may have had something to do with this verb when it was first coined.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Pen’/
3 YESAN ?
4 OFO /Iitka/
5 BILOXI /Dusii/ <*Dusa <*Adunsaza <*Adunskosha
6 QUAPAW /Adiizaza/ <*Aduzaza *Adunsaza ^
7 OMAHA /Uthawn/ <*Uthon <*Adon <*Adunsaza ^
8 KAW /Abuta/
9 OSAGE /Uthon / ^
10 HOCHAK /Herukos/ <*Adukos <*Adunskosha
11 CHIWERE /Anyiin/
12 MANDAN ?
13 DAKOTA /Yuza/, /Oyuspa/ <*Oduska < *Aduska <*Adunskosha
14 NAKODA /Yuza/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Adaxeexii/, /Akshiiya/ <*Adaksheesha <*Adunskosha
16 CROW /Dushkapii/ = “to squeeze”
Rankin provided slightly different variants of some of these words, but clearly invokes Biloxi /Dusii/ and Dakota /Yuza/ in support of his PS *Ruse, “to grasp, hold, take”.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #130
*Dutskingua, to squeeze
All verbs for “squeeze” are cognate, from *Dutskingua as shown. This verb is often also used for “hug”.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA ?
3 YESAN /Luchkink/ <*Dutskinkii <*Dutskinga <*Dutskingua
4 OFO /Tushkiikii/ <*Dutskiikii <*Dutskinkii ^
5 BILOXI /Duchichkii/ <*Dutskiikii ^
6 QUAPAW ?
7 OMAHA /Uthiiskii/ <*Butsiigee <*Butskinga <*Dutskinga ^
8 KAW /Busiigee/ <*Butsiigee ^
9 OSAGE /Athiidhondsee/
10 HOCHAK /Giisgink/ <*Giishginge <*Butskinga ^
11 CHIWERE /Shginge/ <*Giishginge ^
12 MANDAN /Paskiiko’sh/ <*Bashkiiga <*Butskinga ^
13 DAKOTA /Bagiipa/ <*Bashkiija <*Bashkiiga ^
14 NAKODA /Bashkiija/ ^
15 HIDATSA ?
16 CROW /Dushkapii/ <*Dushkawii <*Dutsqua <*Dutskingua
Rankin has again divided this verb into multiple Proto-Siouan roots all meaning “to squeeze”, but several of these use different words with different meanings than the ones above.
1) *Shkante; 2) *Skepe; 3) *Shkepe; 4) *Skike, *Skinke (mentions Hochak /Giisgink/); 5) *Xkike, *Xkinke (mentions Ofo /Tushkiikii/); 6) *Shkike, *Shkinke (mentions Hochak /Giisgink/ again, as well as Yesan /Luchkink/, Chiwere /Shginge/ and Mandan /Paskiiko’sh); 7) *Rushki (mentions Biloxi /Duchichkii/); 8) *Sri; 9) *Xri
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #131
*Ibexrontsee, to rub
This one is more conjectural since the attested verbs are so disparate, and several I could not find (unusually though I did find a Woccon word for this one)
1 WOCCON /Wawe/
2 CATAWBA ?
3 YESAN ?
4 OFO ?
5 BILOXI /Pixudii/ <*Bexotsee <*Bexrontsee <*Iibexrontsee
6 QUAPAW /Biiqa/ <*Iibiiqa <*Iibexashii <*Iibexantsee <*Iibexrontsee
7 OMAHA /Iibiiqa/ ^
8 KAW /Baman/ <*Iibaman <*Iibexan <*Iibexantsee ^
9 OSAGE ?
10 HOCHAK /Wuhinch/ <*Wexranche <*Bexrantsee <*Bexrontsee ^
11 CHIWERE /Wiigranje/ <*Wexranche ^
12 MANDAN /Rukiisho’sh/
13 DAKOTA /Iipama/ <*Iibaman ^
14 NAKODA /Baman/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Kiipakiishii/ <*Iibaxashii <*IIbexashii ^
16 CROW /Axaxii/ <*Iibaxashii ^
Rankin mentions #10-11 under PMV *Hinte “to rub”, #6-7 under PMV *Kha “wipe, rub, scour”, and #12 under PS *Kinshe “wipe, rub, sweep.”
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