Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #136-139: Kin’yan-xeta/to throw, Odoxkechi/to tie, Xwedonstekee/to sew, Akidanwa/to count

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #136
    *Kin’yan-xeta, to throw.

    1-4 are missing and not all available words appear to be cognate, but most are probably corrupted forms of an original verb *Kin’yan-xeta composed of word #120 *Kin’yan ‘to fly’ and a causative suffix *-xeta. This is most clearly seen in the Nakoda form, /Kiin’inyeeya/.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO ?
    5 BILOXI /Kinche/
    6 QUAPAW /Onde/
    7 OMAHA /Onthatheethee/
    8 KAW /Basiigee/
    9 OSAGE /Ontha/
    10 HOCHAK /Un reehii/, /Hrojin/
    11 CHIWERE /Abee/
    12 MANDAN /Kunte/
    13 DAKOTA /Kax’od/
    14 NAKODA /Kiin’inyeeya/
    15 HIDATSA /Iishee/
    16 CROW /Kushiichii/

    Rankin has #6,9, 10a, 12 as from PS *’Unre, ‘to throw away’, but he has #12 again along with 16 as from *PS *Hkute, ‘to throw a dart’.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #137.
    *Odoxkechi, to tie.

    In two languages we have /Gashkee/, obviously related with /Kashkee/, /Kashka/, /Gashka/, and /Skee/, all suggesting *Kashkee. Chiwere /Ugiisge/ has a similar consonant pattern with weaker vowels, and connects with Hochak /Rusgich/, this suggests another syllable in front such as *Ruskechkee. This also fits in with Biloxi /Dikichkee/, Hidatsa /Dutskiitii/, Crow /Daxchii/; now we are getting closer to something like *Dutskechkii or *Duxkechii .
    Yesan /Olohii/ also fits and the -lo- probably from original *-do- which accounts for both Da- in Crow and Hidatsa Du-, Hochak Ru-, Chiwere U-. The initial O- in Yesan, although not shown elsewhere here, is also usually very old so this brings us to *Odotskechkii or *Odoxkechii. I favored -x- over -ts- because -x- is a hard aspirant and disappeared entirely from some of these forms while others became a sibilant; and I favored final -chii over -chkii because the forms suggesting -chkii seem more recent; therefore I think most of these forms would be accounted for by an original verb *Odoxkechii, to tie.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /We’/
    3 YESAN /Olohii/
    4 OFO /Neftekii/
    5 BILOXI /Dikichkee/
    6 QUAPAW /Kashkee/
    7 OMAHA /Iibaqtee/
    8 KAW /Gashkee/
    9 OSAGE /Gashkee/
    10 HOCHAK /Rusgich/
    11 CHIWERE /Ugiisge/
    12 MANDAN /Skee/
    13 DAKOTA /Kashka/
    14 NAKODA /Gashka/
    15 HIDATSA /Dutskiitii/
    16 CROW /Daxchii/

    Rankin has PS *Ske, accounting for #5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16; but also has Hochak /Rusgich/ as from PMV *Skita; and Omaha + Crow as from PS *Xte, all meaning ‘to tie’.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #138.
    *Xwedonstekee, to sew.

    For this verb, all the verbs appear very different and none are particularly like *Xwedonstekee, but amazingly enough that is what I worked out for all of them together, including both different Hidatsa verbs.

    To start with, the Deghigan languages 6-9 are clearly cognate and ultimately worked out to *Wabatsee. Hochunk-Chiwere worked out to *Wadunchek. Dakota, Nakoda, Crow, and Hidatsa a) worked out to *Kekakee, and the other Hidatsa form seems to be related to Hochak-Chiwere *Wadunchek, via *Waduntsee. All of this is shown below.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN /Yeho/
    4 OFO /Qetuye/
    5 BILOXI /Pistakii/
    6 QUAPAW /Pathee/ <*Bathee <*Wabatsee
    7 OMAHA /Bathee/ ^
    8 KAW /Abachee/ <*Wabatsee ^
    9 OSAGE /Wabatsee/ ^
    10 HOCHAK /Ruchek/ <*Wadunchek
    11 CHIWERE /Wathunje/ <*Wadunchek ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Kageege/ <*Kekakee
    14 NAKODA /Gageege/ <*Kageege ^
    15 HIDATSA Kiikakii/ <*Kekakee ^
    15b /Patsutee/ <*Waduntsee
    16 CROW /Chiikachii/ <*Kiikakii ^

    Now it looks like there could be a common ancestor for *Wabatsee, *Waduntsee, *Wadunchek, and even the others, /Qetuye/,
    *Kekakee, /Pistakii/, and /Yeho/.

    Combining *Waduntsee and *Wadunchek produces *Waduntsek. As for *Wabatsee, the difference between the a and u vowels suggests an intermediate -o-, so it and *Waduntsek likely go back to *Wadontsek. /Pistakii/ may preserve the -st- that later turned into -ts-, and a vowel after he k. /Qetuye/ and *Kekakee suggest the initial sound was once slightly harder, such as *Xwe-. So now altogether we should be looking at something like *Xwedonstekee, to sew, which by a completely different route may feasibly have produced Ontario Yesan /Yeho/ as well.

    Rankin has *Hta for ‘to sew’, but of the verbs here, only mentions Hochak /Ruchek/ among its descendants.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #139.
    *Akidanwa, to count.

    All languages have their own different words for ‘to count’, except for two that have /Yawa/. We can also notice a few others happen to end in /-awa/: /Rawa/, /Thawa/, and /Wathawa/, or just /-wa/ in /Pakwa/. /Kiiruwee/ has different vowels but keeps the R-w- pattern as in /Rawa/, and /G’kerep/ also has signs of a *K-r-w- pattern since a w seems to be able to change to b and then p over time, especially in Hochak. 
    As shown I take all these back to *Kiidawa and *Wadawa; the evidence of Biloxi /Akiida/ would suggest these all come from *Akiidawa. Yesan /Yiilanaha/ also corresponds (Yesan L < PS *D) and is evidence of a nasal syllable after the *d, the nasal may also be reflected in the Quapaw word; hence *Akiidanwa “to count”.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN /Yiilanaha/ <*Yiidanwa
    4 OFO /Pakwa/
    5 BILOXI /Akiida/ <*Akiidawa
    6 QUAPAW /Haniide/
    7 OMAHA /Wathawa/ <*Wadawa
    8 KAW ?
    9 OSAGE /Thawa/ <*Wathawa ^
    10 HOCHAK /Gikerep/ <*Kiirawa <*Kiidawa <*Akiidawa ^
    11 CHIWERE /Rawa/ <*Kiirawa ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Yawa/ <*Rawa ^
    14 NAKODA /Yawa/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Kiiruwee/ <*Kiirawa ^
    16 CROW /Chiimii/

    Rankin: managed to collect all of the words here from #7 through 16, and has them all coming from PS *Rawe ‘to count’.

    William Meuse

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