Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #140-143: Hatsee/to say, Waxdonhe/to sing, Menenchishkata/to play, Togabixoga/to float

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #140.
    *Hatsee, to say.

    The verbs for ‘to say’ are remarkably similar, in four it is simply /Ee/ (pronounced like the letter “A”)

    I am assuming the Yesan first syllable /Ha-/ is probably older than the rest, and the second syllable would also be *-hee, but for the main divergent ones /Eedii/, /Ud/ and /Shee/ (2x), these suggest to me an original such as *Hatsee (pronounced “hot-say”), to say.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Ud/
    3 YESAN /Hahee/
    4 OFO /Eehee/
    5 BILOXI /Eedii/
    6 QUAPAW /Iiyee/
    7 OMAHA /Ee/
    8 KAW /Ee/
    9 OSAGE /Ee/
    10 HOCHAK /Ee/
    11 CHIWERE /Ee’e/
    12 MANDAN /Eehee/
    13 DAKOTA /Eeya/
    14 NAKODA /Eeya/
    15 HIDATSA /Hee/, /Shee/
    16 CROW /Hee/, /Shee/

    However Rankin reconstructs this verb ‘to say’ in ‘Proto-Siouan’ as *He’ – long e with glottal stop, so it would sound like ‘hate’ but without the final t

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #141.
    *Waxdonhe, to sing.

    The verbs for ‘sing’ seem cognate and ultimately worked out in my reconstruction to *Waxdonhe.

    Rankin lists most of these verbs together, but calls them “a very difficult set” and does not even attempt any reconstructions.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Mowen/ <*Dowen <*Donwen <*Donhe
    3 YESAN /Yameniiye/ <*Yatonhii <*Wadonhii
    4 OFO /Atonhii/ <*Yatonhii ^
    5 BILOXI /Ya’onii/ <*Yatonhii ^
    6 QUAPAW /Wanan/ <*Wadon <*Wadonhii
    9 OSAGE /Wathon/ <* Waton <*Wadon ^
    8 KAW /Wayon/ <*Waton ^
    9 OSAGE /Wathon/ <* Waton ^
    10 HOCHAK /Nanwen/ <*Donwen ^
    11 CHIWERE /Yanwe/ <Nanwen ^
    12 MANDAN /Waqkananro’sh/ <*Waxnanwe
    13 DAKOTA /Dowan/ <*Dowen ^
    14 NAKODA /Nowan/ <*Dowan ^
    15 HIDATSA /Kiipahii/ <*Wahii <*Wadahii <*Wadonhii
    16 CROW /Balahii/ <*Wadahii ^
    16b /Dawee/ <*Dowen ^

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #142.
    *Menenchishkata, to play.

    These are all the words for ‘play’ I was able to find. The ending *-shkata is evident from the forms /Shkata/, /Shkate/, /Shkada/, /Shkadee/, /Shkadsee/, /Shgaje/, and /Shgach/.

    The forms /Miiniinx/, /Anxii/, and /Aniisii/ suggest something like *Menenchii-, and the forms /Chiigaghee/ and /Miidaxatiichkee/ suggest that the two forms were combined in an original such as *Menenchiishkata.

    Incidentally, in my Proto-Algonquian reconstructions I reconstructed the Proto-Algonquian for “hand” as *Menenchiis. This fits the idea that there was a substantial Algonquian influence on the original Proto-Dakotan, since if my guesses are correct, the original Proto-Dakotan term for ‘play’ *Menenchiishkata may have incorporated the Proto-Algonquian term for “hand”, *Menenchiis.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Suwe/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Aniisii/
    5 BILOXI /Anxii/
    6 QUAPAW /Shkate/
    7 OMAHA /Shkadee/
    8 KAW /Chiigaghee/
    9 OSAGE /Shkadsee/
    10 HOCHAK /Shgach/
    11 CHIWERE /Shgaje/
    12 MANDAN /Miiniinx/
    13 DAKOTA /Shkata/
    14 NAKODA /Shkada/
    15 HIDATSA /Miidaxatiichkee/, /Makiiya/
    16 CROW /Iiwaniiya/

    Rankin reconstructs PS *Warinxe ‘to play’ from #4, 5, 12 & 15a, and separately, PS *Shkate from the others.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #142.
    *Togabixoga, to float.

    I found several different words for ‘float’. I took the similar forms to
    *Ogaboga, *Ugahaha, *Gewoha, and *Tagapiixake below. All have a common ancestor.
    The first syllable is *O-, *U- and *Ta-, all from *To-.The second syllable is *-ga- (3x) and *-ge- 1x, which makes *Toga-. The next part is *-piixa- corresponding to *-wo-, *-bo- and *-ha-, all from *-biixo-, which brings us to *Togabiixo-. The last syllable is *-ha (2x), *-ga or *-ke, all from *-ga. Final result: *Togabiixoga, to float.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Wetiiren/ <?
    3 YESAN /Ugree/ <*Ugahe <*Ugahaha
    4 OFO
    5 BILOXI /Piixyii/ <*Tagapiixake
    6 QUAPAW /Kaha/ <*Ugahaha ^
    7 OMAHA /Ugahaha/ ^
    8 KAW /Boblu/ <?
    9 OSAGE /Ugahaha/ ^
    10 HOCHAK /Gihe/ <*Gewoha
    11 CHIWERE /Waha/ <*Gewoha ^
    12 MANDAN /Wapeqo’sh/
    13 DAKOTA /Okaga/ <*Ogaboga
    14 NAKODA /Ogaboda/ <*Ogaboga ^
    15 HIDATSA Dakapiixiikee/ <*Tagapiixake ^
    16 CROW /Chiilapiiyaxii/ <*Tedapiixake <*Tagapiixake ^

    Rankin reconstructs two PS words for ‘to float’: *Ha (which mentions #6, 10, 11); and *Pixi (mentions #5, 12, and 16).

    William Meuse

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