Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #144-147: Hantsusha/to flow, Adaskexee/to freeze, Tepohutsi/to swell, Minants/Sun

Searching for Saponitown Forums Tutelo Language Revival Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #144-147: Hantsusha/to flow, Adaskexee/to freeze, Tepohutsi/to swell, Minants/Sun

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #144.
    *Hantsusha, to flow

    This verb proved to be one of the hardest to find on the entire Swadesh list. *Hantsusha is just an approximate guess from what vey few puzzle pieces I found – only four languages. No mention of ‘to flow’ in Rankin’s material either.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO ?
    5 BILOXI ?
    6 QUAPAW ?
    7 OMAHA /Gasusee/
    8 KAW ?
    9 OSAGE ?
    10 HOCHAK ?
    11 CHIWERE /Xuna/
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Kaduza/
    14 NAKODA /Haha/
    15 HIDATSA ?
    16 CROW ?

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #145.
    *Adaskexee, to freeze

    Here there are strong similarities in several: /Ada/ (2x), /Da/, /Ja/, /Athahii/, /Atxee/, all suggest something like *Adaxee

    Others show a longer ending after *-da-: /Dakara/, /Dasakya/, /Tasagya/, and /Alachiishii/. The longer endings are /-kara/, /-chiishii/, /-sakya/, /-sagya/. In the first two /-ka-/ and /-chii-/ would both be from *-ke-, and the /-k-/ in /-sakya/ would also be from the same syllable, but the /-sa-/ part probably represents an *-s- before the *-ke-, hence *-ske-. The last syllables, /-ra/, /-ya/ (2x), and /-shii/ correspond with the /-hii/ and /-xee/ in Ofo-Biloxi and could all be from *-xee. Thus my reconstruction for ‘to freeze’ is *Adaskexee.
    There is some support in word #165 “ice” which I reconstructed as *Menin-adaskexee (water + freeze). Also, in Biloxi the same word /Atxee/ is the same word for ‘ice’.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Tep/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Athahii/
    5 BILOXI /Atxee/
    6 QUAPAW ?
    7 OMAHA /Da/
    8 KAW /Ada/
    9 OSAGE /Ada/
    10 HOCHAK /Ja/
    11 CHIWERE /Dakara/
    12 MANDAN /Ktah/
    13 DAKOTA /Tasagya/
    14 NAKODA /Dasakya/, /Chaga/
    15 HIDATSA ?
    16 CROW /Alachiishii/

    Rankin’s reconstruction for ‘to freeze in PS is *Arahkara or *Arahkaran. However, he cites only two samples to support this: Mandan /Rakanran/ ‘hail’, and the Chiwere for ‘freeze’ (which he gives as /Dakhala/). It is unclear from this how he obtained the *A-.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #146.
    *Tepohutsi, to swell.

    Most words for ‘to swell’ seem related, except for Hochak /Nanthis/, possibly a different word.
    First syllable is seen only in Crow /Dapushii/ and Dhegigan /Iiba/, /Iipa/; the balance of /Da-/ and /I-/ produces *Te-.
    The second syllable *-po- was preserved in all descendants and was probably the stressed syllable, and it merged with the third syllable *-hu- in some cases, absorbing it or becoming *-pu-:
    /Po/ 3x, /Bo/, /Bu/, /Pophutii/, /Paho’sh/, /Pushii/ etc.
    The third syllable *-hu- is still seen in Ofo & Mandan
    The final syllable survived in the oldest dialects as /-shii/, /-tii/, suggesting a final *-tsii, and the final result *Tepohutsii.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Pophutii/
    5 BILOXI /Po/
    6 QUAPAW /Iipa/
    7 OMAHA /Iiba/, /Bu/
    8 KAW /Iiba/
    9 OSAGE /Iiba/
    10 HOCHAK /Nanthis/
    11 CHIWERE /Waw/
    12 MANDAN /Paho’sh/
    13 DAKOTA /Po/
    14 NAKODA /Bo/
    15 HIDATSA /Pushii/
    16 CROW /Dapushii/

    Rankin prefers to derive four separate Proto-Siouan words for “to swell”, which are *Pahe, *Pho, *Poh, and *Pox. He derives *Pahe from #6-9, 11, and 12; *Pho from #4; *Poh from #4 also, 5 and 13; and *Pox from #15-16.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #147.
    *Minants, Sun.

    The Swadesh list now returns to nouns, and there is a full set for “Sun.”
    The most common form is /Miin/ in Yesan, Quapaw and Omaha, then /Wii/ in Hochak and Dakota, which seem to correspond also with /Mii/ and /Bii/. A longer word is suggested by /Miinankii/, /Iina/, /Iila/, /Wiitaparee/, /Miidii/, and /Miinonba/. Assuming /Nunte/ and /Axashii/ are also related, I am tentatively suggesting /Miinants/. 
    But it is also a little more complicated. The next word #148, “moon” in my reconstruction is *Miinants-hampotsiiya (Sun + night), and #149 “star” is *Miinants-akanqee (Sun + ???). Both of these reconstructions support *Miinants. Furthermore, word #178, “day”, is *Nahampiitu, which seems to have affected some of the forms below that appear to be from *Miinants-nahampiitu (luminary + day), or *Nahampiitu-miinants (day + luminary).

    1 WOCCON /Wiitaparee/
    2 CATAWBA /Nunte/
    3 YESAN /Miin/
    4 OFO /Iila/
    5 BILOXI /Iina/
    6 QUAPAW /Miin/
    7 OMAHA /Miin/
    8 KAW /Miinonba/
    9 OSAGE /Mii/
    10 HOCHAK /Wii/
    11 CHIWERE /Bii/
    12 MANDAN /Miinankii/
    13 DAKOTA /Wii/
    14 NAKODA /Hanwii/
    15 HIDATSA /Miidii/
    16 CROW /Axashii/

    Rankin’s PS reconstruction for “Sun” is *Wawiran or *Wiran, citing #1, 3-7, 9-13, and 15. He also lists all these again separately under *Wiran “moon, sun, orb.”

     

     

     

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