April 24, 2018 at 1:33 am #49388
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #148.
In all of the words for ‘moon’, some connection with the words for ‘sun’ (< *Miinants) and / or ‘night’ (< *Hampotsiiya) is still apparent.
* Omaha /Miin/ and Hochak /Wii/ mean both sun and moon.
* The Catawba term for moon translates directly as ‘sun-night’ and the Ofo and Nakota terms translate directly as ‘night-sun’.
* In Yesan, sun is /Miin/, night is /Osii/, and moon is /Miinosa’/. In Osage, sun is /Mii/, night is /Hon/, and moon is /Miiyonba/.
* In Dakota, /Hanheepi/ is night, /Wii/ is sun, and /Hanwii/ is moon. In Kaw, /Han/ is night, /miinonba/ is sun, and /Haniinda miiyonba/ is moon.
* Nakota /Hanwii/ ‘sun’ is the same as Dakota /Hanwii/ ‘moon’, and Kaw /Miinonba/ ‘sun’ looks like Quapaw /Miiyunpa/ and Osage /Miiyonba/ ‘moon’. This reflects confusion between the terms for ‘sun’ and ‘moon’, as the longer forms for ‘moon’ were again used for ‘sun’ and then in some cases added to ‘night’ again to make ‘moon’. Therefore the Nakota and Kaw words for ‘moon’ must contain various elements of *Hampotsiiya ‘night’ in two places.
* In Biloxi, sun is /Iina/, night is /Pisii/, but moon is /Nahiintee/, sun + unknown element /-hiintee/. In Chiwere, sun is /Bii/, night is /Hanhe/, but moon is /Biidanwe/, sun + uncertain element /-danwe/, probably derived from /Hanhe/. /-hiintee/ is probably also ultimately from *Hampotsiiya by a separate route from /Pisii/.
* In Mandan, I do not have the word for ‘night’, so /Iinstuh miinankii/ could also mean ‘night sun’. In Hidatsa /Makumiidii/ the second element is ‘sun’ (/Miidii/) but the first (/Maku-/) does not correspond with night /Otsiiya/.
* In Crow for sun I have /Axashii/, but the term for moon /Biiliitachiiya/ seems to contain a different element for sun /Biiliit-/ joined to /Ochiiya/, night.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Nunte wichew/ = ‘sun’ + ‘night’
3 YESAN /Miinosa’/ < ‘sun’ + /osii/, night
4 OFO /Upofii iila/ = ‘night’ + ‘sun’
5 BILOXI /Nahiintee/ < */Iina/ ‘sun’ + ?
6 QUAPAW /Miiyunpa/
7 OMAHA /Miin/ = ‘sun’
8 KAW /Haniinda miiyonba/ < /Han/ ‘night’ + ‘miinonba’ ‘sun’
9 OSAGE /Miiyonba/ < ‘sun’ + /hon/ ‘night’
10 HOCHAK /Wii/ = ‘sun’
11 CHIWERE /Biidanwe/ = ‘sun’ + ?
12 MANDAN /Iinstuh miinankii/ = ? + ‘sun’
13 DAKOTA /Hanwii/ < /Hanheepii/ ‘night’ + ‘sun’
14 NAKODA /Hanheebii hanwii/ = ‘night’ + ‘sun’
15 HIDATSA /Makumiidii/ = ? + ‘sun’
16 CROW /Biiliitachiiya/ < ? + /Ochiiya/ ‘night’
Rankin’s PS word for ‘moon, sun orb’ is *Wiran, as mentioned at “Sun”, he mentions above words #3, 6, 7, 10 and 16 there also.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #149.
The original first element must have been “sun”, as is evident from Quapaw /Miin/ sun, /Miinkax’ee/ star; Omaha /Miin/ sun, /Miinka’ee/ star; Osage /Mii/ sun, /Miikagee/ star; Hochak /Wii/ sun, /Wiiregunchge/ star; Chiwere /Bii/ sun, /Biikax’e/ star; Dakota /Wii/ sun, /Wiitchaxpii/ star.
The parts added to “sun” in the above words are: /-kax’ee/, /-ka’ee/, /-kagee/, /-regunchge/, /-kax’e/, and /-tchaxpii/. To this can be added /-chahpii/ from Nakoda.
“Sun” can also be seen in Biloxi /Iina/, sun, /Iintka/, star; in this case the added part is /-tka/. This is also cognate with Crow /-hka/, Hidatsa /-chka/. The Yesan form /Tabuniinchka/ shares this ending, suggesting the first part /Tabuniin/ or rather /Tabuniinch/ is ultimately from *Miinants sun, and only the /-ka/ is from the second element in all of these.
So, stripping other artifacts further evidencing the -ts in *Miinants, for the second element we have *Ka from Yesan, Ofo, Biloxi, Hidatsa, Crow, *Kaqee representing Dhegigan, *Axpii representing Dakotan, *Ekanqe for Hochak-Chiwere, *Keeka for Mandan, and the Woccon word Untakeer. There is a hint of a first syllable *a- in *Ekanxge and Untakeer. The second syllable is surely *-ka- as preserved in the conservative languages, the nasal survives only in Hochak but is a good fit, and the last syllable after -ka, appearing variously as *-qee, *-pii, *-qe, *-ka or -keer would all be from *-qee, hence my reconstruction of the second element is *Akanqee and the full word for star *Miinants-akanqee.
1 WOCCON /Watapii untakeer/
2 CATAWBA /Weptino/
3 YESAN /Tabuniinchka/
4 OFO /Ontaske/
5 BILOXI /Iintka/
6 QUAPAW /Miinkax’ee/
7 OMAHA /Miinka’ee/
8 KAW /Miikak’ee/
9 OSAGE /Miikaqee/
10 HOCHAK /Wiiregunchge/
11 CHIWERE /Biikax’e/
12 MANDAN /Xkeeka/
13 DAKOTA /Wiitchaxpii/
14 NAKODA /Wiinchahpii/
15 HIDATSA /Iichka/
16 CROW /Iihka/
Rankin has three reconstructions for “star” – PS *Intka, from #3, 4, 5, and 16; PS *Ske from #3 and 4 (again), 10 and 12; and PMV *Wihkax’e, *Wihkaxpi, from 6-9, 11, and 13.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #150.
Most of these words for ‘water’ are similar; 3 have /Nii/, 2 have /Niin/, 2 have /Anii/, then there is /Menii/, /Minii/, /Miinii/, /Miiniin/ etc.
Mandan /Miiniin/ seems the fullest version preserving all parts and nasals, but because the first vowel varies as -e- in Yesan and A- in Ofo-Biloxi, I have altered it on balance to *-e- producing *Meniin, water.
Notes: Woccon /Ijaw/ could be from ‘river’; and Hidatsa /Miidii/ ‘water’ is the same as the word for ‘Sun’ (from *Miinants).
1 WOCCON /Ijaw/
2 CATAWBA /Yen/
3 YESAN /Menii/
4 OFO /Anii/
5 BILOXI /Anii/
6 QUAPAW /Niin/
7 OMAHA /Nii/
8 KAW /Nii/
9 OSAGE /Nii/
10 HOCHAK /Niin/
11 CHIWERE /Nyiin/
12 MANDAN /Miiniin/
13 DAKOTA /Minii/
14 NAKODA /Miinii/
15 HIDATSA /Miidii/
16 CROW /Biilii/
Rankin has PS *Warin ‘water or liquid’ from all the words #3-16 above, but he considers Catawban to be unrelated and from Proto-Siouan-Catawban *Yan, ‘water’.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #151.
The words for rain (noun) differentiated a lot, and in 6-11 only, acquired *Niin ‘water’ as a prefix, but they all seem to be ultimately from *Xatsohii as shown.
1 WOCCON /Yawowa/ <*Qawohii <*Xatsohii
2 CATAWBA /Huksore/ <*Haksohii <*Xatsohii
3 YESAN /Qawo’/ <*Qawohii ^
4 OFO /Ashohii/ <*Xashohii <*Xatsohii
5 BILOXI /Qohii/ <*Qawohii ^
6 QUAPAW /Niinzhii/ <*Niinzhu <*Zhu <*Tso <*Tsohii
7 OMAHA /Nazhiin/ <*Niinzhu ^
8 KAW /Nuzhu/ <*Niinzhu ^
9 OSAGE /Niizhiiyu/ <*Niinzhu ^
10 HOCHAK /Niinzhu/ ^
11 CHIWERE /Niiyu/ <*Niinzhu ^
12 MANDAN /Hee’hosh/ <*Hatso <*Xatsohii
13 DAKOTA /Magazhu/ <*Zhu ^
14 NAKODA /Magazhu/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Xade/ <*Xada <*Xatso <*Xatsohii
16 CROW /Xala/ <*Xada ^
Rankin reconstructs ‘rain’ in PS as *Xohe from #3-5 and 12; but also PMV *Ninzhu from 6-11, 13-14.
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