Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #156-159: Minyanstek/stone, Pushaki/sand, Amanxan-xichoti/dust, Amanxan/earth

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #156.
    *Minyanstek, stone.

    In 3 languages the word for stone is /Iin/, and /Iinyan/ in two, with several other similar forms. The initial M- survives in Mandan and Hidatsa. The last part -stek seems preserved in Yesan, and also traces in /Tuk/, /Anxu/ and /Inte/.

    The result *Miinyanstek ‘stone’ may be connected with *Miinyanka ‘woman’ (word #36). The connection seems supported by a strange set of Yesan words: /Miihan/ woman, /Niistek/ stone, then there is also a word given in 1913 by Frachtenberg as “Mihanstik – fire” and by Sapir as “Miha(i)stik – man”. Both linguists had the same source in 1913, a Cayuga named Andrew Sprague at Grand River who knew only a few Tutelo words, but seems confused on this one. We know this is not the word for “fire” nor “man”. My proposed solution to this conundrum is that /Miihanstik/ was composed of ‘woman’ + ‘stone’ and meant “fireplace, hearth or stove”, showing the same association, although /Niistek/ itself meaning just ‘stone’ similarly would come from the original form /Miinyanstek/.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Inte/
    3 YESAN /Niistek/, /Hiistek/
    4 OFO /Tuk/
    5 BILOXI /Anxu/
    6 QUAPAW /Iin/
    7 OMAHA /Iinon/
    8 KAW /Iin/
    9 OSAGE /Iin/
    10 HOCHAK /Iiniin/, /Niinsh/
    11 CHIWERE /Iino/
    12 MANDAN /Miin’/
    13 DAKOTA /Iinyan/
    14 NAKODA /Iinyan/
    15 HIDATSA /Mii’/
    16 CROW /Bii/

    Rankin’s reconstructions for ‘rock’ are:
    1) PS *Wa’inre, *Wa’in, or *Inre, Proto-Siouan-Catawban *In, mentioning #2 and 6-16;
    2) PS *Rinse, from Yesan /Niistek/ and Hochak /Niinsh/;
    3) PS *Inx’e, ‘rock, pebble’, mentions Biloxi /Anxu/
    4) Proto-Dakotan *Thunkan ‘rock’ (which means ‘sacred stone in Dakota), he thinks is related to Ofo /Tuk/ and the /-tek/ in Yesan.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #157.
    *Pushaki, sand.

    All available words are related and go back to *Pushakii ‘sand’, except for the Catawba, Dakota and Nakoda terms which seem to be entirely different and unrelated words.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Yewote/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO ?
    5 BILOXI /Pqakii/
    6 QUAPAW /Piiza/
    7 OMAHA /Piiza/
    8 KAW /Puza/
    9 OSAGE /Phiidha/
    10 HOCHAK /Punzeke/
    11 CHIWERE /Puthake/
    12 MANDAN /Pushak/
    13 DAKOTA /Tchasmu/
    14 NAKODA /Wiiyaska/
    15 HIDATSA /Puxakii/
    16 CROW ?

    Rankin has two PS reconstructions for ‘sand’ from these: *Hpuxahke, from #5 and 15, and *Hpusahe from #6-12.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #158.
    *Amanxan-xichoti, dust.

    The formation of *Amanxan ‘earth’ + *Xiichotii ‘smoke’ is most visible in Chiwere /Mayan/ earth, /Shoje/ smoke, /Mahashoje/ dust; and in Osage /Monzhon/ earth, /Shodsee/ smoke, /Monshoshodee/ dust.
    In Kaw, earth is /Manyinka/ and the added part here is /-xtan/. We can also see Nakota, Dakota /Maka/, /Maqa/ earth, added to /-du/ and /-nuna/ to make ‘dust’. However the words for smoke in these languages are unlike the added parts.
    The Crow gloss for ‘dust’, /Puxke/ seems to fit with the words for ‘sand’ from *Pushakii. The Hochak term for ‘dust’ /Rahoch/ looks like it might fit better with the words for ‘ashes’ from *Nanchotii. Hidatsa has the same word meaning either ‘dust’ or ‘ashes’, of unknown origin. The origin of the easternmost words is also unclear, but because the Chiwere and Osage words give the clearest explanation, I reconstruct ‘dust’ as *Amanxan-xiichotii, “earth-smoke”.
    Note that the reverse, or *Xiichotii-amanxan (“smoke-earth”) is also my reconstruction for word #161 “fog”.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Hyu/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Itchepii/
    5 BILOXI /Nupqii/
    6 QUAPAW ?
    7 OMAHA /Nawntubee/
    8 KAW /Manxtan/
    9 OSAGE /Monshoshodee/
    10 HOCHAK /Rahoch/
    11 CHIWERE /Mahashoje/
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Makamdu/
    14 NAKODA /Mankamnuna/
    15 HIDATSA /Miidatsapii/ = ash
    16 CROW /Puxke/ < *Pushakii, sand

    No reconstruction in Rankin for ‘dust’.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #159.
    *Amanxan, earth.

    This usually means ‘land’, ‘ground’ as well as ‘Earth’. The *A- is in the Ohio Valley group (which all agree on /Aman/) and the northern group.
    Whatever followed *Aman- is seen as /-zhon/ (2x),/-yan/, /-yiinka/, /-iinka/, /-iika/, /-thiinka/, /-‘ak/, /-qa/, and /-ka/. I am guessing the original was *-xan and that the word for “earth” was *Amanxan. This also appears elsewhere on the Swadesh list in these compounds:
    #158 *Amanxan-xiichoti, dust (earth + smoke),
    #161 *Xiichoti-amanxan, fog (smoke + earth)
    #163 *Amanxan-tachontsii, wind (earth + ?)

    See also #155 *Meniin-skosha, salt, where *Amanxan-skosha may be an older alternative.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Menu/
    3 YESAN /Aman/
    4 OFO /Aman/
    5 BILOXI /Aman/
    6 QUAPAW /Monzhon/, /Maniika/
    7 OMAHA /Mawniinka/
    8 KAW /Manyiinka/
    9 OSAGE /Monzhon/, /Monthiinka/
    10 HOCHAK /Man/
    11 CHIWERE /Mayan/
    12 MANDAN /Man’ak/
    13 DAKOTA /Maqa/
    14 NAKODA /Maka/
    15 HIDATSA /Ama/
    16 CROW /Awa/

    Rankin has most of these as coming from PS *Awan ‘earth, ground, land’.

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