Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #164-166: Waxuhiya/snow, Menin-adaskexee/ice, Xichoti/smoke

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #164.
    *Waxuhiya, snow.

    /Wa/ means ‘snow’ in 3 languages, /Ba/ in 3. Several others are very similar to /Wa/, namely /We’/, /Wahu/, /Wahuhii/, /Wawawa/. Also /Ma/, /Ma’nh/, /Ma’pii/.
    Yesan /Hohiiye/ and Ofo /Echufii/ fit in with Biloxi /Wahu/ and Hochak /Wahuhii/ to suggest /Waxuhiiya/; the -x- reflects not only -h- but the -ch- and the /’/ in Mandan and Hidatsa. The change of initial W- to B- is also responsible for /Biiya/ and /Poyde/.

    1 WOCCON /Wawawa/
    2 CATAWBA /We’/
    3 YESAN /Hohiiye/
    4 OFO /Echufii/
    5 BILOXI /Wahu/
    6 QUAPAW /Poyde/
    7 OMAHA /Ma/
    8 KAW /Ba/
    9 OSAGE /Ba/
    10 HOCHAK /Wahuhii/, /Wa/
    11 CHIWERE /Ba/
    12 MANDAN /Ma’nh/
    13 DAKOTA /Wa/
    14 NAKODA /Wa/
    15 HIDATSA /Ma’pii/
    16 CROW /Biiya/

    Rankin derives #1, 2, 5, 7-9, 10b, 11-13, and 16 from PS *Wa or *Wawa, snow. However he derives #6 and 10a separately from PS *Wahu, *Wawahu, *Wahure or *Wawahure, also ‘snow’.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #165.
    *Menin-adaskexee, ice.

    The Biloxi form /Atxee/ is the same as the verb ‘to freeze’ (#145).
    I previously reconstructed “water” as *Menin and “to freeze” as *Adaskexee. The resulting *Menin-adaskexee looks like a good candidate for the ancestor most of these words for ‘ice’ below.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Monhii/
    3 YESAN /Nonq/, /Mingiiracha/
    4 OFO
    5 BILOXI /Atxee/ = “to freeze”
    6 QUAPAW /Toxata/
    7 OMAHA /Nuxee/
    8 KAW /Nonghee/
    9 OSAGE /Nonxee/
    10 HOCHAK /Nunq/
    11 CHIWERE /Nunxee/
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Tchaga/
    14 NAKODA /Chaga/
    15 HIDATSA /Maduxii/
    16 CROW /Buluxa/

    Rankin’s reconstruction of the same is *Runxe or *Warunxe ‘ice’, mentioning all of the above terms except Biloxi.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #166.
    *Xichoti, smoke.

    In Ofo the first part of /Apheeshiihii/ clearly relates to /Apheetii/, fire (from *Apeetii). The other forms beginning with /P-/ also may have incorporated *Apeetii fire at some point.
    Aside from that we have the series Shota, Shoda, Shote, Shoje, Shojee, Shodsee, Shudee. This is cognate with the /-shiihii/ in Ofo, and Biloxi /Kusiidii/ with evidence of the first syllable, which was probably *Xii- as in Hochak, considering also Chiwere /Xeemana/ “fog” from *Xichoti-amanxan, etc. Woccon /Tushee/ is also cognate and evidence of a medial -ch- rather than -sh-.

    1 WOCCON /Tushee/
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Apheeshiihii/
    5 BILOXI /Kusiidii/
    6 QUAPAW /Shote/
    7 OMAHA /Shudee/
    8 KAW /Shojee/
    9 OSAGE /Shodsee/
    10 HOCHAK /Xii/
    11 CHIWERE /Shoje/
    12 MANDAN /Pii’he/
    13 DAKOTA /Shota/
    14 NAKODA /Shoda/
    15 HIDATSA /Piiye/
    16 CROW /Puwa’ee/

    Rankin’s reconstruction is P’ohe “fog, smoke” from #12, 15, 16, see also word #161 “fog”.

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