Tutelo-Saponi Language Lesson #8 – Lawrence A. Dunmore, III

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    Pluralized Adjectives
    In the Tutelo-Saponi language, the pluralization of adjectives of objects (non-living) are expressed by
    As an adjective is reduplicated, a verbal suffix is added.
    For example:
    Plural Conjugations:
    white house – ati asáñ
    white houses – ati asañsáñsel
    ugly house – ati okayēke
    ugly houses – ati okayeyēksel
    large house – ati itáñi
    large houses – ati itañtañsel
    There are two unusual plural conjugations:
    small house – ati gutska
    small houses – ati Kotskutskaisel
    long house – ati sui
    long houses – ati yumpañkatskaisel
    Now you try ….
    Tall mountains
    Old Trees
    Big strawberries
    Red hats
    Big guns
    Brown leaves
    Sick children
    Lupūs – hats; gide – big; wakasic – children;
    atsūti- red
    Haspahínuk – strawberry; Yatt – tall; çūqe –
    Onī -Tree; waginōma -sick; mīnktē – gun; otōi –
    leaf; atcotate – brown
    For living beings (humans and animals) the verbal termination is used without reduplication.
    For example:
    Wahtáke bi (Wah-tah-kay bee) Good man
    Wahtáke biwa or bise (Wah-tah-kay bee)
    Good men
    Mihe bi (Me-hay bee) Good woman.
    Mihe bise (Me-hay bee-say) Good women.
    Tçhuñge bise
    Good dog or It is a good dog
    Tçhuñge bihlése Good dogs or They are good
    Now you try …Bad dogs, Red cats, Tall men or
    Sleeping women

    Dalusgik – cat; Yatt – tall; hīyañ – sleep;
    atsūti – red
    Answers to these pluralized adjectives will be in
    the next language lesson

    Now let’s see the correct use of the following verbs with separate pronouns from last month’s lesson.
    Separate Pronouns are only used to express emphasis on something. They are kept separate from the verb
    or adjective when they are used. In conversation, they are used to put special emphasis on something.
    Mím(a) – I, (Mee-mah)
    Im(a)-He, She, They (Ee-mah)
    or Imahese – (Ee-mah- hay-say)
    Mim(a) – We (Mee-mah)
    Im(a)-Him, Her, Them
    (Ee-mah) or Imahese (Ee-mah- hay-say)
    Yím(a) – You (Yee-mah)
    (a) is used to put emphasis
    Affixed Nominative Pronouns
    I – Ma, Wa, Mi, Me, We
    You – Ya, Ye, Yi, Yin
    We – Mae, Ma, Mai, Man, Manj
    They/Them -hla, hlese, hna*, hne*
    *Verbs ending in a are conjugated with hna
    *Verbs ending in e are conjugated with hne
    Begûn (Bay-goon) – to blow
    He/She blow (it).
    Ima Begûn (Ee-mah Bay-goon)
    He/She must blow.
    Bewagûn (Bay-wah-goon
    I blow (it).
    Mím(a) Bewagûn (Mee-mah Bay-wah-goon)
    I must blow (it).
    Beyagûn (Bay-yah-goon)
    You blow (it).
    Yíma Beyagûn (Yee-mah Bay-yah-goon)
    You must blow (it).
    begûnhne (Bay-goon-hen-ay)
    They blow (it).
    Imahese begûnhne. (Ee-mah-hay-say Baygoon-hen-ay)
    They must blow it.
    Maebegûn (May-Bay-goon)
    We blow (it).
    Míma Maebegûn (Mee-mah May-Bay-goon)
    We must blow it
    Opé – (Oh-pay)
    He/She are going
    Ima opé (Ee-mah oh-pay)
    He/She must be going
    Owapé (Oh-wah-pay)
    I am going.
    Mím(a) owapé (Mee-mah Oh-wah-pay)
    I must be going
    Oyapé (Oh-yah-pay)
    You are going.
    Yíma oyapé (Yee-mah oh-yah-pay)
    You must be going.
    Opéhne (Oh-pay-ha-nay)
    They are going.
    Imahese opéhne (Ee-mah-hay-say Oh-pay-hanay)

    They must be going
    Maopé – (Mah-oh-pay)
    We are going
    Míma maopé – (Mee-mah Mah-oh-pay)
    We must be going.
    Alé (Ah-lay) to go
    He/She go.
    Ima alé (Ee-mah Ah-lay)
    He/She must go.
    Walé (Wah-lay)
    I go.
    Mím(a) walé
    (Mee-mah Wah-lay)
    I must go.

    Yalé (Yah-lay)
    You go.
    Yíma yalé (Yee-mah Yah-lay)
    You must go.
    Aléhne (Ah-lay-ha-nay)
    They go.
    Imahese aléhne.
    (Ee-mah-hay-say ah-lay-ha-nay)
    They must go.
    Malé (mah-lay)
    We go.
    Míma malé.
    (Mee-mah mah-lay)
    We must go.
    Lóca (Low-kah) to take
    He/She take.
    Ima Loca (Ee-mah Low-kah)
    He/She must take.
    Walóca (Wah-low-kah)
    I take.
    Mím(a) walóca
    (Mee-mah Wah-low-kah)
    I must take (it).
    Yalóca (Yah-low-kah)ä
    You take.
    Yíma yalóca (Yee-mah Yah-low-kah)
    You must take (it).
    Lócahla (Low-kah-ha-law)
    They take.
    Imahese lócahla (Low-kah-law)
    They must take (it).
    Mailóca (My-low-kah)
    We take.
    Míma mailóca. (Mee-mah my-low-kah)
    We must go

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