May 4, 2018 at 3:05 am #49511
In the Tutelo-Saponi language, the pluralization of adjectives of objects (non-living) are expressed by
As an adjective is reduplicated, a verbal suffix is added.
white house – ati asáñ
white houses – ati asañsáñsel
ugly house – ati okayēke
ugly houses – ati okayeyēksel
large house – ati itáñi
large houses – ati itañtañsel
There are two unusual plural conjugations:
small house – ati gutska
small houses – ati Kotskutskaisel
long house – ati sui
long houses – ati yumpañkatskaisel
Now you try ….
Lupūs – hats; gide – big; wakasic – children;
Haspahínuk – strawberry; Yatt – tall; çūqe –
Onī -Tree; waginōma -sick; mīnktē – gun; otōi –
leaf; atcotate – brown
For living beings (humans and animals) the verbal termination is used without reduplication.
Wahtáke bi (Wah-tah-kay bee) Good man
Wahtáke biwa or bise (Wah-tah-kay bee)
Mihe bi (Me-hay bee) Good woman.
Mihe bise (Me-hay bee-say) Good women.
Good dog or It is a good dog
Tçhuñge bihlése Good dogs or They are good
Now you try …Bad dogs, Red cats, Tall men or
Dalusgik – cat; Yatt – tall; hīyañ – sleep;
atsūti – red
Answers to these pluralized adjectives will be in
the next language lesson
Now let’s see the correct use of the following verbs with separate pronouns from last month’s lesson.
Separate Pronouns are only used to express emphasis on something. They are kept separate from the verb
or adjective when they are used. In conversation, they are used to put special emphasis on something.
Mím(a) – I, (Mee-mah)
Im(a)-He, She, They (Ee-mah)
or Imahese – (Ee-mah- hay-say)
Mim(a) – We (Mee-mah)
Im(a)-Him, Her, Them
(Ee-mah) or Imahese (Ee-mah- hay-say)
Yím(a) – You (Yee-mah)
(a) is used to put emphasis
Affixed Nominative Pronouns
I – Ma, Wa, Mi, Me, We
You – Ya, Ye, Yi, Yin
We – Mae, Ma, Mai, Man, Manj
They/Them -hla, hlese, hna*, hne*
*Verbs ending in a are conjugated with hna
*Verbs ending in e are conjugated with hne
Begûn (Bay-goon) – to blow
He/She blow (it).
Ima Begûn (Ee-mah Bay-goon)
He/She must blow.
I blow (it).
Mím(a) Bewagûn (Mee-mah Bay-wah-goon)
I must blow (it).
You blow (it).
Yíma Beyagûn (Yee-mah Bay-yah-goon)
You must blow (it).
They blow (it).
Imahese begûnhne. (Ee-mah-hay-say Baygoon-hen-ay)
They must blow it.
We blow (it).
Míma Maebegûn (Mee-mah May-Bay-goon)
We must blow it
Opé – (Oh-pay)
He/She are going
Ima opé (Ee-mah oh-pay)
He/She must be going
I am going.
Mím(a) owapé (Mee-mah Oh-wah-pay)
I must be going
You are going.
Yíma oyapé (Yee-mah oh-yah-pay)
You must be going.
They are going.
Imahese opéhne (Ee-mah-hay-say Oh-pay-hanay)
They must be going
Maopé – (Mah-oh-pay)
We are going
Míma maopé – (Mee-mah Mah-oh-pay)
We must be going.
Alé (Ah-lay) to go
Ima alé (Ee-mah Ah-lay)
He/She must go.
I must go.
Yíma yalé (Yee-mah Yah-lay)
You must go.
They must go.
We must go.
Lóca (Low-kah) to take
Ima Loca (Ee-mah Low-kah)
He/She must take.
I must take (it).
Yíma yalóca (Yee-mah Yah-low-kah)
You must take (it).
Imahese lócahla (Low-kah-law)
They must take (it).
Míma mailóca. (Mee-mah my-low-kah)
We must go
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