Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #104-107: Widyukthan/to think, Oyubelanhe/to smell, Winexwentskewee/to fear, Hinyan/to sleep

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #104
    *Widyukthan, to think

    I have traced several of the cognate words for “to think” to the original form *Wiidyukthan as shown below.

    This does not seem prevalent in the east, where Yesan has apparently adapted /Onshpee/ “to know” to make /Konspee/ “to think”. The Ofo and Biloxi verbs could conceivably be cognate with *Wiidyukthan as well, but are too abbreviated to be certain if so.
    The verb shown for Kaw, /Azhiin/, is a secondary (#B) verb for ‘to think’ present in Quapaw (/Azhiin/), as well as Osage /Aziin/, Chiwere /Najee/, Dakota /Awatchiin/, Nakoda /Awachiin/. These could be from a PMV *Nawajiin, probably not from *Wiidyukthan.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA ?
    3 YESAN /Konspee/ <*Onspee “to know”
    4 OFO /Hetanii/
    5 BILOXI /Yiihii/
    6 QUAPAW /Iidiiknan/ <*Iidiikthan <*Iidyukthan <*Wiidyukthan
    7 OMAHA /Eetheegawn/ <*Iithiigthon <*Iidiikthan ^
    8 KAW /Azhiin/
    9 OSAGE /Iithiigthon/ ^
    10 HOCHAK /Hiire/ <*Hwiirugran <*Wiidukdan <*Wiidyukthan
    11 CHIWERE /Wiirugran/ <*Hwiirugran ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Iiyukchan/ <*Wiinyukchan <*Wiidyukchan <*Wiidyukthan
    14 NAKODA /Wiinyukchan/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Iidiiye/ <*Hiidiiyache <*Hiidyachan <*Wiidyukchan ^
    16 CROW /Hiiliiyachii/ <*Hiidiiyache ^

    Rankin has three Siouan protowords for “to think”: *Eyehe (from #4, 5, 10, 16); *Rukiyan, *Kiyan (from #6, 7, 9, 11, 13), and *’In (from #4 (again), 6B, 8, 9B.)

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #105
    *Oyubelanhe, to smell

    This is the transitive verb, to smell something. Most forms worked out to *Oyubelanhe as shown below in my reconstruction.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Hukesiire/ < ?
    3 YESAN /Uwalahaha/ <*Obalanha <*Obelanhe <*Oyubelanhe
    4 OFO /Ephonhii/ <*Epanhii <*Obelanhe ^
    5 BILOXI /Panii/ <*Epanhii ^
    6 QUAPAW /Pnan/ <*Belan <*Oyubelan <*Oyubelanhe
    7 OMAHA /Uthiibthawn/ <*Uthiibthan <*Oyubelan ^
    8 KAW /Oyublan/ <*Oyubelan ^
    9 OSAGE /Uthiibthon/ <*Uthiibthan ^
    10 HOCHAK /Horupenen/ <*Oruberan <*Oyubelan ^
    11 CHIWERE /Obran/ <*Oruberan ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Omna/ <*Obran ^
    14 NAKODA /Omna/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Mupii/ < ?
    16 CROW /Daholii/ < ?

    Rankin takes #6, 9, 10-11, and 13 to PMV *Wran, but says #3 and 5 are unrelated to that, and makes no attempt at a Proto-Siouan reconstruction.

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #106
    *Winexwentskewee, to fear.

    This reconstruction is difficult, more so because I have so far been unable to find any verbs for “to fear” in 5 of the languages. What words I did find in each language seem mostly unrelated at first, but I was able to find enough recurring patterns to tentatively suggest *Wiinexwentskewee for several of them. The chart below shows the path from *Wiinexwenskewee (without the t); I have slightly emended the final result with the -ts- instead of -s- because it just seems to fit the original sounds. If I could get this verb in Hochak, Mandan and/or Crow, it could dramatically change my results.

    Dr. Rankin does not attempt any reconstruction at all of “to fear”, and does not consider these verbs.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Mishru/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Infhiihii/ <*Iinskehii <*Iinskewee <*Wiinonskewee <*Wiinexwenskewee
    5 BILOXI /Iinske/ <*Iinskehii ^
    6 QUAPAW /Nonpe/ <*Wiinonpee <*Wiinexwenwee <*Wiinexwenkewee <*Wiinexwenskewee
    7 OMAHA /Weenawnpee/ <*Wiinonpee ^
    8 KAW /Nonpee/ <*Wiinonpee ^
    9 OSAGE /Nonpee/ ^
    10 HOCHAK ?
    11 CHIWERE /Nagwe/ <*Nexwen <*Wiinexwen <*Wiinexwenkewee ^
    12 MANDAN ?
    13 DAKOTA /Qokiipha/ <*Qokebe <*Xwekewee <*Wiinexwenkewee ^
    14 NAKODA /Giininhan/ <*Wiinexwen <*Wiinexwenkewee ^
    15 HIDATSA /Kiiye/
    16 CROW ?

    William Meuse

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #107
    *Hinyan, to sleep.

    Most of the verbs I obtained for “to sleep”, apart from the two Ofo verbs, seem to come from *Hiinyan. Dakota and Nakoda seem to have incorporated some prefix before *Hiinyan, and Catawba *Himure is probably related.

    Rankin came up with a similar result: *Hiyan, *Hiyanre for Proto-Siouan, and taking Catawban into account, he has *Hiwun for Proto-Siouan-Catawban “to sleep”.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Himure/
    3 YESAN /Hiiyan/ <*Hiinyan
    4 OFO /Waw/, /Mankii/ <??
    5 BILOXI /Yanii/ <*Hiiyan ^
    6 QUAPAW /Zhan iidee/ <*Zhan <*Nyan <*Hiinyan
    7 OMAHA /Zhawn/ <*Zhan ^
    8 KAW /Zhan/ ^
    9 OSAGE /Zhon/ <*Zhan ^
    10 HOCHAK /Nan/ <*Nyan ^
    11 CHIWERE /Yan/ <*Nyan ^
    12 MANDAN /Hana’n/ <*Hanyan <*Hiinyan
    13 DAKOTA /Iishtiinman/
    14 NAKODA /Iinshtiinma/
    15 HIDATSA /Hiidawii/ <*Hiirawii <*Hiinyan
    16 CROW /Hiilawii/, /Iihawii/ <*Hiirawii ^

    William Meuse

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