Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #53-56: Manyan-kashiik/stick, Waskuntsee/fruit, Itsu/seed, Manyan-hapee/leaf

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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #53
    *Manyan-kashiik, stick.

    ENGLISH: Stick – Tree
    PROTO: *Manyan-kashiik – *Manyan

    YESAN /Hankshiik/ – /Miiyen’/
    OFO /Iichon/ = /Iichon/
    BILOXI /Ayan/ = /Ayan/
    KAW /Zhanha/ – /Zhan/
    HOCHAK /Nanksiik/ – /Nan/
    CHIWERE /Nathu/ – /Naynge/
    MANDAN /Manakshuk/ – /Manan/
    DAKOTA /Tchan/ = /Tchan/
    HIDATSA: /Miidakaza/ – /Wiira/

    The word for ‘tree, wood’ also means ‘stick, branch’ in Ofo, Biloxi and Dakota. In the remaining languages, the words for ‘stick’ have their first element derived from *Manyan, tree. Stripped of these, the secondary elements are: /-kshiik/, /-ha/, /-ksiik/, /-thu/, /-kshuk/, and /-kaza/. The original ancestor of most if not all of these seems to be *-kashiik, hence I have reconstructed this word as *Manyan-kashiik.

    This *-kashiik element is probably related to other Yesan terms like /Nee’oknakshiikee/, to lean a stick (eg as required by Iroquois law when absent from house), and other variant forms of the regular Yesan word /Hankshiik/ also meaning ‘stick’ include /Oknashiik/ and /Wanjek/; this last term looks suspiciously to me like it may have had a slightly more vulgar connotation, but we cannot be sure. Then there is the reconstructed term *Nakashetseeja ‘to split, chop’ (Yesan /Lakasha/), or it could also perhaps be related to *Kajiintska ‘small’. From all of this, the meaning of the element *-kashiik in *Manyan-kashiik might mean something along the lines of ‘offshoot’, ‘splinter’, ‘slice’, or ‘subdivision’.

    William Meuse


    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #54
    *Waskuntsee, fruit.

    I traced most of the available words to *Waskuntsee as shown. Catawba /Turii’/ and Biloxi /Anakii/ seem like different words, so this would impede guessing the Yesan word for ‘fruit’. From the Yesan words /Hasiisiiya/ ‘rasberry’, and /Haspahiinuk/ ‘strawberry’, it has been proposed that /*Has/ in Yesan meant ‘berry’, and since the same word in Hochak means both ‘berry’ and ‘fruit’, it is likely that /*Has/ is also the Yesan word for ‘fruit’.

    The Mandan form /Mananro/ is a compound of /Manan/ ‘tree’ and /Oro/ meaning ‘seed’, ‘nut’, or ‘meat’, probably originally from *Itsu, seed. It is even conceivable that the cognate terms themselves originated from a compound *Manyan-itsu, but the signs seem to point more directly to something such as *Waskuntsee.

    WOCCON ?
    CATAWBA /Turii’/
    YESAN ? (*/Has/)
    OFO ?
    BILOXI /Anakii/
    QUAPAW /Kantee/ < *Waskantee <*Waskuntsee
    OMAHA ?
    KAW ?
    OSAGE /Wadhkiitee/ <*Waskiitee <*Waskantee ^
    HOCHAK /Has/<*Was <*Wasgu <*Wasku <*Waskuja <*Waskutsa <*Waskuntsee
    CHIWERE /Wathgu/<*Wasgu ^
    MANDAN /Mananro/ = ‘tree’ + ‘seed’
    DAKOTA /Waskuya/ <*Waskuja ^
    NAKODA /Waskuyeja/ <*Waskuja ^
    HIDATSA /Makata/<*Wakata <*Waskata <*Waskanta <*Waskantee ^
    CROW ?

    Rankin considers the ancestor of Hochak /Has/ to be Proto-Siouan *Hase or *Has-hu, ‘berry, grape’. No mention of the other terms, but he explains Mandan /Oro/ as being from both *Iyo ‘meat’ and *Roheka, ‘moist, soft, wet’ – though exactly how he thinks it came from both, is somewhat opaque.


    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #55
    *Itsu, seed.

    The Yesan word /Do/, seed, comes from Lawrence A Dunmore , who may have isolated it from Frank Speck’s material (not sure about that though). Oliverio reconstructed *Su as Tutelo for ‘seed’ on the basis of the cognates and the word for ‘eye’, but this is obviated if /Do/ is the correct word in Yesan for ‘seed’.

    Either way, the original ancestor of all these words was likely *Iitsu. As noted yesterday, the Mandan form /Oro/ not only means ‘seed’ but also ‘meat, flesh’, but it seems to fit in better with this set than it does with the other words for ‘flesh’ from *Waydukchiik, thus ‘seed’ was likely the older meaning of /Oro/.

    WOCCON ?
    CATAWBA /Hiitu/<*Iitsu
    YESAN /Do/<*Iido <*Iitsu
    OFO /Iifhu/<*Iitsu
    BILOXI /Su/<*Tsu <*Iitsu
    QUAPAW /Sii/ <*Su ^
    OMAHA /Sii/^
    KAW /Su/^
    OSAGE /Udhii/ <*Utsi <*Iitsu
    HOCHAK /Su/ ^
    CHIWERE /Thu/ <*Tsu ^
    MANDAN /Oro/<*Iiro <*Iido ^
    DAKOTA /Su/ ^
    NAKODA /Su/ ^
    HIDATSA /Tsuwii/<*Tsu ^
    CROW ?

    Rankin derives all of these words from PS *Su ‘kernel, seed’, except for Mandan /Oro/, which as mentioned yesterday, he derives from PS *Iyo, ‘flesh’ and *Roheka, soft most, wet.


    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #56
    *Manyan-hapee, leaf.

    The Yesan word /Oto/ is related with Mandan /Wiiratohee/ and Quapaw /Tuh/, and seems to be rather from *Beshiilii-Atsohiiya, green, rather than *Manyan-Hapee. The first part of Mandan /Wiiratohee/ might be a form of /Manan/, tree, but I’m not sure.

    Quapaw /Zhonapee/, Omaha /Zhawnabee/,and Kaw /Zhanyabee/, as well as Hidatsa /Miidapa/ all show compound forms of “tree” + “leaf”. The N- in Chiwere /Nawe/ is also vestigial from the final –n in *Manyan, tree.

    Aside from the forms already mentioned, the others are Catawba /Yephe/, Ofo /Apxii/, Biloxi /Hapii/, Quapaw /Apee/, Osage /Abee/, Hochak /Ap/, Mandan /Ape/, Dakota /Apee/, Nakoda /Wahpee/, Crow & Hidatsa /Apa/. The presence of h or x in Ofo and Nakoda could be explained by an initial H- in the *-hapee element as in Biloxi.

    Rankin derives most of these words from Proto-Siouan *Apee

    William Meuse

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