April 11, 2018 at 10:56 pm #48817
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #57
This one was stumping me so I put it on the back burner for a couple of days. On closer examination, it seems the original term was *Manyan-Hutkan rather than what I had earlier, *Manyan-kan. My original attempt had been *Manhunyan-kan. I forgot that some of the forms for ‘root’ do suggest the *hu- syllable, but its placement seems to be best resolved as part of the second element.
In Rankin’s scheme, the Crow, Hidatsa, Biloxi, and Catawba words, and Dakota /Hut/ come from proto-Siouan *Hute, ‘root, base, stump’, while the Omaha, Osage and Dakota /Qan/ he says come from PS *Ihkan, ‘cord, sinew, vein’. He also mentions the Biloxi form (which he gives as /Udii/ rather than /Tudii/) under PS *Hu, *Hure, ‘tree, bone, leg, stalk, stem, trunk.’
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #58
*Manyan-araxwe, bark (of a tree).
This reconstruction is a compound of two other words on the list, *Manyan ‘tree’ which we have already seen, plus *Araxwe ‘skin’ which is coming up at word #62. The term for ‘bark’ as originally coined thus meant “Tree skin”.
This is still evident in many descended languages, to wit:
Quapaw – /Zhanha/ bark = /Zhan/ tree, + /Ha/ skin.
Osage – /Zhonha/ bark = /Zhon/ tree, + /Ha/ skin.
Hochak – /Nan ha/ bark = /Nan/ tree + /Ha/ skin
Dakota – /Tchanha/ bark = /Tchan/ tree, + /Ha/ skin
Nakoda – /Chanha/ bark = /Chan/ tree + /Ha/ skin
Catawba – /Yepepis/ bark = /Yep-/ wood + /Pis/ skin
Chiwere – /Naha/, /Nanxuha/ bark = /Na-/ wood + /Ha/, /Xuha/ skin
Kaw – /Zhanxuhan/ bark = /Zhan/ tree + /Xuha/ skin.
Omaha /Zhawnha/ bark = /Zhawn-/ wood + /Xiinha/, /Waha/ skin.
Ofo has the same word /Alahii/ for both ‘skin’ and ‘bark’, and in Biloxi, ‘bark’ is given as ‘Ahii’
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh word #59 Waxotseree, flower
Most of these Dakotan languages words for “flower” are clearly related with Tutelo /Wahiyee/. I have reconstructed the original ancestor of them as being something like *Waxotseree (remember I am using the letter x to show the raspy H sound)
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Depsew/ <?
3 YESAN /Wahiyee/ <*Waxiyee <*Waxikchee <*Waxotsee <*Waxotseree
4 OFO /Akikchehi/ <*Waxikchee ^
5 BILOXI /Axiyee/<*Waxiyee ^
6 QUAPAW /Waqta/ <*Waxta <*Waxtsa <*Waxotsa <*Waxotsee ^
7 OMAHA /Waqtha/ <*Waxta ^
8 KAW /Xla/ <*Xta <*Waxta ^
9 OSAGE /Xtha/ <*Xta ^
10 HOCHAK /Xanwin hoqere/<*Xawenhoxree <*Hwanxotsree <*Waxotseree
11 CHIWERE /Xamoxra/ <*Xawenhoxree ^
12 MANDAN /Wa’oseeree/ <*Waxotseree ^
13 DAKOTA /Waxcha/ <*Waxtsa ^
14 NAKODA /Waxcha/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Odakapaki/ – different word?
16 CROW ?
Prof. Robert Rankin’s reconstruction (obviously using different methods from mine) posits two Proto-Siouan words for flower, *Xyehe (citing words #4,5, 10 & 12) and *Xya (from #6,7,8,9,11 & 13).
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #60
This one is more uncertain than most, because of confusion as to which of the following terms for “grass” are cognate.
Note Osage has three of the terms side by side:
Osage 1) /Monhiin/ is clearly related to Kaw and Quapaw and may represent *Amanxan-hin, Earth + hair. (Does this *Amanxan-hin also explain Hochunk /Xanwin/?)
Osage 2) /Peeshee/ is related to Omaha and Dakota/Nakota, and all these seem to come from *Pezhee.
Osage 3) /Xadsee/ seems related to Hochunk /Xanwin/, Chiwere /Xame/, Mandan /Xanh/. All of these would point to *Xanzhee, of which *Pezhee could be a variant. If /Xanwin/ is also connected with the first root we may be looking at *Amanxan-zhin (rather than *-hin) as ancestor of all three Osage forms and the other western (Miss. Valley) languages.
As for the east: Hale usually wrote the Yesanechi (Tutelo) word for grass as “Sunktagi” or “Sunktaki” (however it once appears on one page as “Muktagi”, which could be an error or misprint). The first syllable /Sunk-/ is reminiscent of Catawba /Surek/, while the remaining /-tagii/ looks akin to Biloxi /Tansii/ and the /Akii-/ in Ofo /Akiiska/. The Yesan word /Sunktagii/ could then possibly be the missing link between these eastern forms, indicating a possible original such as *Suntangiiska.
Finally there are the northern forms, Crow /Biika/ and Hidatsa /Miika’/ which could conceivably connect with the last part of *Suntangiiska.
If the forms /Xanh/, /Xame/, /Xanwin/, and /Xadsee/ rather come from something like *Xangee, instead of as above, then they also might represent a piece related to the middle part of *Suntangiiska, gravitating the original over toward *Sunthangeeska. But this is only a conjecture considering several possible solutions, and it may be that these are just several unrelated words.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Surek/
3 YESAN /Sunktagii/
4 OFO /Akiiska/
5 BILOXI /Tansii/
6 QUAPAW /Monhin/
7 OMAHA /Peezhee/
8 KAW /Manhiin/
9 OSAGE /Monhiin/, /Peeshee/, /Xadsee/
10 HOCHAK /Xanwin/
11 CHIWERE /Xame/
12 MANDAN /Xanh/
13 DAKOTA /Phezhii/
14 NAKODA /Pezhii/
15 HIDATSA /Miika’/
16 CROW /Biika/
Rankin gives two proto-SIouan words for grass: *Xanhe (which he derived from #10, 11, 12), and *Xate ( from #9 c). He also mentions #7, 9 b , and 13 as from the “old reconstruction” *Peeshi, meaning he later discarded it as not found outside of Proto Miss. Valley (PMV); and #6, 8, and 9a from PMV *Monhiin, which he suggests is borrowed from Cheyenne (Algonquian) /Mo’e/ but then folk-etymologized as “earth-hair”.
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