April 11, 2018 at 10:59 pm #48821
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #61
Several of the languages have obvious cognates for ‘rope’ or ‘cord’ – Yesan /Waquk/ as well as the Biloxi, Quapaw, Hochak (b), Mandan, Dakota and Nakota forms, can all easily be connected and traced back to *Waxinkan, as shown below.
Of the remaining words, a few of the others could also certainly be cognate with this as well, while others seem harder to connect or even entirely different. In particular, Omaha /Miinazhiiha/ and the Crow word /Dashiiya/ seem possibly related to one another.
1 WOCCON /Traw-hee/
2 CATAWBA /Wuye/
3 YESAN /Waquk/ <*Waxuk <*Waxink <*Waxinkan
4 OFO /Atkate/
5 BILOXI /Iinkan/ <*Xinkan <*Waxinkan
6 QUAPAW /Kan/, /Wahiiyon/ <*Wahinkan <*Waxinkan ^
7 OMAHA /Miinazhiiha/
8 KAW /Wabeesan/
9 OSAGE /Weethiin/
10 HOCHAK /Cheeksun/; /Wagiinan/ <*Waxiinan <*Waxinkan ^
11 CHIWERE /Haweebriin/
12 MANDAN /Hiinkarankan/ <*Hinkan <*Xinkan ^
13 DAKOTA /Wiiqan/ <*Winkan ^*Wahinkan ^
14 NAKODA /Winkan/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Ashu/
16 CROW /Biishiiyaxpa/, /Dashiiya/
Rankin’s model reconstructs two proto-Siouan terms – *Ihkan “cord, sinew, vein” where he includes Quapaw /Kan/, Biloxi /Inkan/, and Mandan /Hinkanran/ for support, and *Anka “cord, string” where he again mentions Mandan /Hinkanran/.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #62
The words below for “skin” all can be traced to a proto-Dakotan term like *Araxwe, which we have already seen as a component of the term for “bark” (*Manyan-araxwe, i.e. “tree-skin”, word #58). Note the abbreviated form “Ha” is understood by seven of the recorded languages in the west.
The Tutelo / Yesan word for “skin” was not recorded, but on the basis of the others, we can guess that it must have been some conservative form in common with Ofo and Biloxi, probably *Alahee.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Pis/ <?
3 YESAN ?
4 OFO /Alahii/ <*Alahee <*Araxee <*Araxwee
5 BILOXI /Ahee/ <*Alahee ^
6 QUAPAW /Ha/ <*Xuha <*Xwa <*Xwee <*Araxwee
7 OMAHA /Waha/, /Xinha/ <*Xuha ^
8 KAW /Ha/, /Xuha/ ^
9 OSAGE /Ha/, /Xuha/ ^
10 HOCHAK /Ha/, /Xu/ <*Xuha ^
11 CHIWERE /Ha/, /Xuha/, /Ruxawee/ <*Ruxwee <*Roxwee <* Raxwee <*Araxwee
12 MANDAN /Ii’ahee/ <*Ilahee <*Alahee ^
13 DAKOTA /Ha/ ^
14 NAKODA /Ha/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Daxpii/ <*Raxwii <*Raxwee ^
16 CROW /Daxiipii/ <*Daxpii ^
Rankin’s reconstructed proto-Siouan term for “hide, skin, cloth” happens to be similar in this case: *Roxpee, in support of which he includes the Hidatsa and Crow words above. He also notes all the languages that have /Ha/, but traces them only to Proto-Miss Valley *Ha, “skin”
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #63
*Wayduqchik, flesh, meat
The first part of *Wayduqchik, in my view, is connected with the next word, (#64) “blood”, *Waydii, where *Wayduqchiik was originally probably the phrase in the superstrate language for “blood + meat”. It is most obvious in the Yesan word for flesh, /Wayuqtiik/. Mr Speck later recorded a variant Yesan form /Gwayutik/ which shows evidence that the initial superstrate *Gw- was still remembered for some time. This makes this word one of the main ‘dead giveaways’ regarding the affinities of the superstrate.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /Widyo/ <*Wiinjo <*Wiido <*Waydoq <*Wayduqchiik
3 YESAN /Wayuqtiik/ <*Wayuqchiik <*Wayduqchiik
4 OFO /Iincho/ <*Wiincho <*Wiinjo ^
5 BILOXI /Iinksiiyo/ <*Iinksho <*Iincho ^
6 QUAPAW /Zho/ <*Tazho <*Tajo <*Tado <*Ado <*Aydo <*Waydoq ^
7 OMAHA /Zhu/ <*Tazhu <*Tazho ^
8 KAW /Ta/, /Jo/ <*Tajo ^
9 OSAGE /Tazhu/ ^
10 HOCHAK /Chak/ <*Chek <*Chiik <*Wayuqchiik ^
/Wenin/ <*Wanyii <*Wayuq <*Wayuqchiik ^
11 CHIWERE /Iiro/ <*Wiiro <*Wiido ^
12 MANDAN /Oro/ <*Wiiro ^
13 DAKOTA /Thado/ <*Tado ^
/Tchexpii/ <*Chek ^
14 NAKODA /Tano/ <*Tado ^
15 HIDATSA /Iidukshiitii/ <*Iidukshii’ <*Aydukshiik <*Wayduqchiik
16 CROW /Iiluk/ <*Aylukshii <*Ayrukshii’ <*Aydukshiik ^
/Alulii/ <*Aylukshii ^
Rankin’s proto-Siouan reconstruction for “flesh” is *Iyo and he mentions all of these words above as including that stem.
Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #64
The chart below shows how I would trace Yesan /Wayii/ and the other language words for ‘blood’ all to Proto-Dakotan *Waydii.
As mentioned yesterday under *Wayduqchiik ‘flesh’, there is a recorded variant of Yesan /Wayuqtiik/ as /Gwayutiik/, with the Gw- a possible vestige from the superstrate element in Proto-Dakotan.
1 WOCCON ?
2 CATAWBA /It/ <*Iidii <*Waydii
3 YESAN /Wayii/ <*Way’ii <*Waydii
4 OFO /Ahiihii/ <*Way’ii ^
5 BILOXI /Haydii/ <*Waydii
6 QUAPAW /Wapayn/ <*Wabay <*Wawii <*Wayii ^
7 OMAHA /Wamii/ <*Wawii ^
8 KAW /Wabiin/ <*Wabii <*Wawii ^
9 OSAGE /Wabiin/ ^
10 HOCHAK /We’iy/ <*Way’ii ^
11 CHIWERE /Wabage/
12 MANDAN /Iiree/ <*Iirii <*Iidii ^
13 DAKOTA /Wee/ <*We’iy ^
14 NAKODA /Wee/ ^
15 HIDATSA /Iidii/ ^
16 CROW /Iilii/ <*Iirii ^
Rankin’s result is similar, he obtained from these same words the Proto-Siouan form *Wa’ire (*/Wa’iiree/) for ‘blood’. The main difference is he seems to give greater weight perhaps to Mandan /-ree/ than to Biloxi and Hidatsa /-dii/ in this case.
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