Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #80-83: Shiha/foot, Cheskanhu/leg, Shuwanxtsee/knee, Chaki/hand

Searching for Saponitown Forums Tutelo Language Revival Proto-Dakotan Swadesh words #80-83: Shiha/foot, Cheskanhu/leg, Shuwanxtsee/knee, Chaki/hand

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    MarcSnelling
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    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #80
    *Shiha, foot

    The terms for “foot” surely had a common ancestor, something like *Shiiha or *Iishiiha. Taking the forms from *Iishiiha as another “back-formation” from the pronouns for “my” and “your” (*Miishiiha, my foot, *Diishiiha, your foot), that leaves us with *Shiiha (*Shiha) as the original part meaning “foot”.

    If Rankin’s version is correct though, the original word for foot was *Isi.

    There is also a curious parallel in all three proto-language families of the woodlands, I have reconstructed the Proto-Algonquian word for foot as *Mesiit, and the Proto-Iroquoian as *Ohsiita, and all of the languages in these families have similar words for “foot”, but then again this may be coincidence.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Yiip/
    3 YESAN /Iishii/
    4 OFO /Ifhii/
    5 BILOXI /Sii/
    6 QUAPAW /Sii/ ^
    7 OMAHA /Sii/ ^
    8 KAW /Sii/ ^
    9 OSAGE /Dhii/
    10 HOCHAK /Sii/ ^
    11 CHIWERE /Thii/
    12 MANDAN /Shii/
    13 DAKOTA /Siiha/
    14 NAKODA /Siiha/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Iitsii/
    16 CROW /Iichii/

    William Meuse

     

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #81
    *Cheskanhu, leg

    I am less certain about my reconstruction for “leg” *Cheskanhu, since it required more ‘educated guesswork’

    The relatives of Yesan /Yeksa/ seem to include at least Quapaw /Zheka/ and the first part of Ofo /Chefhanhee/ . It occured to me that this last form might preserve an otherwise missing link between these forms and the others using the syllable /Hu/ to mean “leg”. This syllable /Hu/ also turns up in various names of trees as well as the words for “bone” from *Wahuri, indeed in Dakota the same syllable /Hu/ is the word for both “bone” and “leg” meaning the two words have coalesced in that one language.
    While a form like *Cheskanhu might conceivably account for all of these, it is still my conjecture, as there could easily be other explanations, including, that there were actually different or unrelated words for “leg” here.

    Rankin distinguished different Proto-Siouan words for “leg” – *Yeka (‘leg. thigh’), whence he derives #3, 4, 6, and 12; *Yase (‘calf of leg’) whence #4 and 16b; and *Hure (‘tree, bone, leg, stalk, stem, trunk) for #7, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 16a, which we have already seen under word #65 *Wahuri, bone. Note that he seems to derive the Ofo word /Chefhanhee/ from two different proto-words, *Yeka and *Yase, as he includes it in support of both forms.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Himpe/
    3 YESAN /Yeksa/
    4 OFO /Chefhanhee/
    5 BILOXI / Yukpe/
    6 QUAPAW /Zheka/
    7 OMAHA /Hii/
    8 KAW /Hu/
    9 OSAGE /Dhiihii/
    10 HOCHAK /Hu/
    11 CHIWERE /Hu/
    12 MANDAN /Rok/
    13 DAKOTA /Hu/
    14 NAKODA /Hu/
    15 HIDATSA /Iidiikii/
    16 CROW /Iihulii/, /Data/

     

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #82
    *Shuwanxtsee, knee.

    There is a lot of divergence in the various words for “knee”, but several of them in my view can still be linked and traced to some ancestor like *Shuwanxtsee.

    In my scheme, #10, 12, 13b and 15 are all cognate forms and came via *Xuwaxo, while 5, 6-9, 13a and 14 are also cognate, and came from *Shinanxtsee. The form *Shuwanxtsee assumes both these forms further had a common origin.

    For comparison, Rankin’s model of Proto-Siouan “knee, lap, thigh” is *Shirante, *Shirunte, where he includes #5, 6-9, and 16.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Wetop/
    3 YESAN ?
    4 OFO /Neqontii/
    5 BILOXI /Chiinankii/ <*Chinankee <*Chinanxtee <*Shinanxtsee <*Shuwanxtsee
    6 QUAPAW /Shiinonte/ <*Shiinantsee <*Shinanxtsee ^
    7 OMAHA /Shiinawndee/ <*Shiinantsee ^
    8 KAW /Shiiyanjee/ <*Shiinantsee ^
    9 OSAGE /Shiinondsee/ <*Shiinantsee ^
    10 HOCHAK /Huporo/ <*Xuwaxo <*Shuwanxtsee
    11 CHIWERE /Shashge/ <*Shanxtsee
    12 MANDAN /Supax/ <*Xuwaxo ^
    13 DAKOTA /Tchankpee/ <*Chankpee <*Chinankpee <*Chinanxtee ^
    /Hupahu/ <*Xuwaxo ^
    14 NAKODA /Chankpee/ ^
    15 HIDATSA /Xuwaxa/ <*Xuwaxo ^
    16 CROW /Iishushii/

     

    Proto-Dakotan Swadesh list word #83
    *Chaki, hand.

    This term was obviously replaced in #6-11 and 13-14 with another word, *Nanpe or similar. The rest probably ultimately come from *Chakii, same as in Biloxi, with the backformationed *Ii- prefix evident in several others.

    Rankin has three forms: *Ranpe / *Iranpe for my *Nanpe set, with the others from *Ishake “hand, claws, nails” (see *Tsuchakee, fingernail), except for Yesan /Hak/ and Mandan /Unk/, which he links together as evidence of a third proto-word for “hand”, *Unke.

    1 WOCCON ?
    2 CATAWBA /Iks/
    3 YESAN /Hak/
    4 OFO /Iichakii/
    5 BILOXI /Chakii/
    6 QUAPAW /Nonpee/
    7 OMAHA /Nanbee/
    8 KAW /Nanbee/
    9 OSAGE /Nonbee/
    10 HOCHAK /Nanp/
    11 CHIWERE /Nanwe/
    12 MANDAN /Unk/
    13 DAKOTA /Nanpee/
    14 NAKODA /Nanbee/
    15 HIDATSA /Iishakii/
    16 CROW /Iishchu/

    William Meuse

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